Self-Reflective- SunshineGirl

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

In this course I did satisfy the requirements for core value 1. I received a lot of feedback from Professor Hodges when I requested it, and all of his commentary was very helpful. A specific example I have from this course is the definition argument rewrite assignment which is linked below. There is a total of twenty-three responses in the comments section under the assignment. There was a lot of back-and-forth communication that helped me get an idea of how to improve my work. I would change something then ask for more advice to ensure I was doing the best on could on this paper. I learned that College Comp II is no place for a first draft, and even if you think it’s the best writing you’ve ever done, there is always room for improvement.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

Core value 2 was reached in my research paper assignment. I had thirteen references that I used in my paper by the time it was finished. I had to go through multiple articles, case studies, legal documents, nonprofit organization websites, etc. to try to find the best material. I read the entirety of the ones I picked just to be sure I wasn’t missing any critical information, as well as to ensure I get the most valuable quote possible from the author. When including a quote in my paper, I made sure not to place it randomly. I introduced the authors in a respectable way and tied it into my paper so it didn’t stand out awkwardly. Afterwards, I expressed how the quote was valuable to my paper and supported my topic/hypothesis.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

The completion of core value 3 was achieved with my visual rhetoric rewrite assignment. Here I analyzed a thirty second commercial ad and put it into my own interpretation. I saw what the characters were wearing, the actions they were doing, their facial expressions, and more, and was able to determine the purpose and audience of the advertisement. The one thing I’d mention, however, is that not all of my rhetorical analyses were correct. The ad I watched was for a seatbelt company but the whole time I thought it was a car commercial. It really helped me realized how, without text, every little detail can mean something up for interpretation, because there’s no one to tell you exactly what’s going on.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

I accomplished core value 4 with most of my work but specifically my causal argument rewrite assignment. I incorporated three references that added value to my argument and gave credit to the authors for their quotes, as well as their ideas that were paraphrased. One of the hardest parts was evaluating the evidence. Locating useful, scholarly sources was easy enough, but some of the articles were very long and had a lot of information crammed in. It was a challenge to interpret all of the graphs and charts that held the data, but I ended up being successful and I think all the references really added to my assignment.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

Core value 5 was completed when doing my annotated bibliography assignment. I properly cited these sources using the format from the example annotated bibliography. At first I simply put the URLs into an online citation generator, but quickly noticed that it wasn’t in the right order. It’s so important that all your sources are in uniform and the reader can easily see which one is which if they wanted to follow along. I also ethically represented the authors’ ideas in the “background” portion of this assignment. It is my duty as a writer to accurately restate their work in my own words, without losing/changing up their ideas too much. While I may not have needed to utilize all of the information the author gave me, I did need to include a basic outline of their studies/procedures when filling out the background, so that their work didn’t go to waste.

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Bibliography-SunshineGirl

1. “Oxford Languages and Google-English.” Oxford Languages, (n.d). Web 2 November. 2021.

Background: This is not a scholarly, peer-reviewed article, I found this page from a simple google search of the definition of recidivism. However, Oxford Languages is a very esteemed website and a trusted establishment because that is the dictionary where we get most of the definitions for our English words.

How I used it: I used the site to look up the exact definition of recidivism, in case any readers were unsure of the meaning. It is the main point of my essay and wanted all of the readers to be on the same page with me, as well as to reinforce the definition argument. I used the definition in my essay twice in total because I really wanted the point that the readers were not getting reconvicted to stick with the audience.

2. G G Gaes. “Recidivism Among Federal Offenders.” US Department of Justice, 1986. Web 2 November. 2021.

Background: This is a very credible source because it is public record from the US Department of Justice. While it may be more dated than some of my other sources, it provides a lot of charts/graphs for data on recidivism over the years in the US.

How I used it: The first part of my paper was the diefinition argument and I wanted to stick with defining recidivism and how yoga can effect this in the United States. It was until I reached my rebuttal and causal arguments that I wanted to expand the research more to prisons not in the USA. I think this site gave me some good data to start with to get the audience in the right mindset that recidivism rates fluctuate all the time. This depends on a multitude of factors, but this includes the living conditions and different prison organizations that were established around the 1970’s, when the outlook on prisoners sort of started to shift.

3. Dragana Derlic. “A Systematic Review of Literature: Alternative Offender Rehabilitation—Prison Yoga, Mindfulness, and Meditation.” Sage Journals. Journal of Correctional Health, 15 September. 2020. Web 25 October. 2021.

Background: This article is more of a written gathering of ideas and not so much a formal study. It gives me background knowledge and a lot of new terms and quotes to use in my paper. It is more spiritual than the other sources and focuses on the well-being of the inmates. The main idea is that prisoners will not act out as much and will “calm down” if given the right healthcare and lifestyle. It favors the idea that these alternative methods to the standard prison policies are much more effective at creating better mental statuses and social connections, which are required to keep the prisoners from going back to their violent ways.

How I used it: I used this source to show how some people automatically think that all prisoners are violent by nature, but this is not always the case. Derlic helps me show how it’s life in prison itself and the routines the prisoners go through that weighs down on their spirit and eats at away at their hope. This source helped me demonstrate how yoga and meditation can lift them up by balancing their minds and bodies, as well as giving them an outlet to counteract any possible anger at the world.

4. Elizabeth Duncombe, Dawna Komorsky, Evaon Wong-Kim, and Winston M Turner. “Free Inside: A Program to Help Inmates Cope with Life in Prison at Maui Community Correctional Center.” ResearchGate. California Journal of Health Promotion, December. 2005. Web 2 November. 2021.

Background: This is a study done with prisoners at the Maui Community Correctional Center, or MCCC, in Hawaii. Free Inside is a twelve-week program with frequent classes of yoga, meditation, and chi gung. The practices lasted an hour each and it was found that was an association with participation and self-esteem, compassion, and hope. This article explains how inmates are just as human as anybody and need physical and mental stimulation in order to find peace, reach balance, and ultimately succeed. The conclusions were that the authors recommend more programs like Free Inside be introduced to help the rehabilitation process for inmates.

How I used it: This article was geared more towards the psychological parts of yoga and meditation. I didn’t use a lot of the data because my essay doesn’t incorporate chi gung. I felt that this would throw off the focus of my paper because the participants practiced it in every class, and the benefits of chi gung versus those of strictly yoga may be different. However, I dd incorporate a good quote from the author about the eight basic principles that inmates need in order to adjust to prison life. They mostly have to do with emotional and social support, which makes sense and shows how inmates can still be kind and compassionate beings. I know this article’s primary focus was on prisoners’’ entry into jail, and not what they do after they leave, but it did help me show how important these requirements are and how yoga can be this filler and be the solution to a happier inmate. It was important to use a quote like this early on to establish the clear psychological connection between the healthy brain and yoga.

5. Anis Sfendla, Petter Malmström, Sara Torstensson, and Nóra Kerekes . “Yoga Practice Reduces the Psychological Distress Levels of Prison Inmates.” NCBI. Fronteirs in Psychiatry, 3 September. 2018. Web 2 November. 2021

Background: This study consisted of 152 participants chosen randomly that practiced yoga classes over a period of ten weeks to directly study its effect on their mental health. There were a series of tests done before and after the experiment, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). It was observed that yoga, as compared to the free—choice physical activity control group, significantly decreased the levels of psychological distress. Some specific symptoms that were eased are “suspicious and fearful thoughts about losing autonomy, memory problems, difficulty in making decisions, trouble concentrating, obsessive thought, and perception of bodily dysfunction.”

How I used it: I used the author’s words to show the direct influence yoga has on brain activity, and to show how yoga is powerful enough to even cure some symptoms of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. If the audience knows yoga can improve psychotic symptoms in the mentally ill, it’s way easier to believe that it can lessen the chance a prisoner will recommit a crime. I also pointed to the fact that there a lot of prisoners with mental health issues, either those who entered the prisons with pre-existing illnesses, or those who obtained one over the course of their sentence. This article was very valuable to me because it helped put things into perspective of how big of a change yoga potentially can make.

6. Shaked Kovalsky, Badi Hasisi, Noam Haviv, and Ety Elisha. “Can Yoga Overcome Criminality? The Impact of Yoga on Recidivism in Israeli Prisons.” PubMed. National Library of Medicine, 14 April. 2020. Web 25 October. 2021.

Background: This source covers a study done at the Israeli Prison Service on released prisoners. They participated in group yoga classes during their sentences and were studied over 5 years to log the recidivism rates. There was also a control group who did not practice any yoga in their jail times that was chosen carefully through a score matching system. When the two groups were compared it showed a lower recidivism rate in the first group. While it said further study was needed, the contributors of this paper concluded by recommending more types of alternative practices to assist in the rehabilitation process of inmates. The great thing about this article is that it has a lot of data and solid facts.

How I used it: I used this source to transition from my definition argument to my rebuttal argument. This was done by showing one study done internationally, in this case Israel, to help the audience understand that this is an important topic that’s being practiced and studied all over the world, not just as a trial in the US. Also, I used the data and percentages to show the exact findings of the research to get in touch with the analytical side of my audience. This paper also helped prove how I knew what I was talking about and conducted good research, because it is a very credible source. The study used a “propensity-score matching system,” and  a follow-up of more than five years, so the readers know the data, and therefore my conclusions, are legitimate.

7. Amy C. Bilderbeck, Miguel FariasInti, A. Brazil, Sharon Jakobowitz, Catherine Wikholm. “Participation in a 10-week course of yoga improves behavioural control and decreases psychological distress in a prison population”. Elsevier. Journal of Psychiatric research,  18 June. 2013. Web. 9 December. 2021

Background: Another study was done with yoga in prisons but this one was only a 10-week course with classes once a week and around 100 volunteers (including the control group) from different British institutions. Unlike the other study, the researchers did not continue the experiment for 5 years after to monitor rates of recidivism, they simply logged the inmates’ mood and psychological data like stress levels, cognitive behavior, and more. It was found that the classes lowered the stress and tendency to act irrationally in the participants significantly. This article might not have to do with the lowering of recidivism over time but there are a lot of psychological facts to back up any points I make.

How I used it: This source was helpful to me because the sample size was good and it laid out the details of how everyone was chosen at random from seven different prisons in the UK. Again, this helped me to show that prisoners of any background or location can benefit from practicing yoga, and if it works everywhere else it would work in the United States too. The improvement seen with the cognitive behavioral task really helped me show the effect yoga has on the brain and how it can help stabilize how the prisoners act. Even if it didn’t directly record the recidivism rates, this article was still very valuable in my paper.

8. Anthony Hopkins, Lorana Bartels, Lisa Oxman. “Lessons in Flexibility: Introducing a Yoga Program in an Australian Prison”. Proquest. Crime Justice Journal, 2019. Web 9 December. 2021.

Background: This study deals with a pilot yoga program for prisoners in the Alexander Maconochie Centre in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The author teamed up with the ACT, the yoga teacher, and a psychologist who overlooked the whole experiment. Therefore this article has a little bit of everything I’m looking for- the prisons’ policies and the details of this study, the psychology behind it, and the spirituality factor which can all give me great quotes and phrases. The author and the psychologist both themselves participated in the program and gave first hand feedback of the positions, processes, exercises, etc. The article’s conclusion advocates for more alternative programs like this in prisons in Australia and elsewhere. A drawback from this study is that the sample size was only 8 which might leave some room for interpretation of error.

How I used it: The authors and researches worked as a team with the Yoga Foundation and ACT Services (Australian Capitol Territory). This showed that the study was credible and well-conducted. Again, it diminished the strength of the main rebuttal argument that yoga in prisons is just a whimsical idea and no actual, esteemed prisons throughout the world would take it seriously. The population that was studied was a group of very tough individuals. Of course these kinds of people are found all over in prisons, but these were specifically some of the more serious inmates in all of Australia, so there was no messing around when it came to the sample. Nevertheless, this source helped me proved how yoga and meditation can influence anyone because it is a psychological process that calms the mind and body, even if you are a beginner. The sample size did not turn out to be much of a roadblock because I didn’t go that deep into the details of the study. The procedures were not discussed because I felt there were other studies with much more reliable data that I utilized instead.

9. Mar Griera. “Yoga in Penitentiary Settings: Transcendence, Spirituality, and Self-Improvement”. Proquest. Springer Science+Business Media, 29 July. 2016. Web 14 December. 2021.

Background: This study is a multiple case study with the goal of better understanding the effects of yoga from a psychological standpoint as it is practiced by many people around the world but not yet fully understood as a rehabilitation method. This study focuses on the religious and meditative aspects instead of the physical benefits of the movements. It was said that yoga allowed the inmates to “transcend their everyday prison lives”. It used data from three different experiments in Barcelona penitentiaries. Again, the results were not based on recidivism but more so dealt with the changes in the inmates’ mindsets and spirituality. Something I like about this article is that it directly compares different prison policies around the world and the qualities of lifestyle. It discusses the Spanish constitution and prison methods which support mental and social growth and rehabilitation, as compared to the US where it is frequent for inmates to be alone and under cared for as a form of punishment for their crimes. One thing I dislike about it is that the data is all put into lengthy paragraphs and there are no images, charts, or graphs like in the other studies.

How I used it: While it’s important to have a wide variety of different prisons studied to express my points, there is a quote from Griera that perfectly put into words why I am dismissing the high-security prisoners that lock up the most dangerous, unpredictable criminals, as well as the old-school prisons that are corrupt and use immoral methods of punishment. The prisons that would implement yoga are the more rehabilitative ones that allow for free time, outdoor time, etc. I think the quote I used from this article explains why I am not taking ALL prisons into consideration, and just picking out a few from my findings that best aid my arguments. Again, there was a lot of writing in this article but it ultimately just gave me more information to work with and pick out the best quotes I could.

10. Natalie Moore. “Finland’s Open Prisons”. Pulitzer Center, 2 September. 2021. Web 18 December 2021.

Background: This is a very short article, about a page long, that does not directly have to do with my topic. It is about open prisons in Finland and it shows how there is not one correct structure/organization method for penitentiaries.

How I used it: I only referenced this article once in my essay very briefly. I used a quote that showed how lenient Finland prisons are with their rules and schedules, and that is something that works for them. This article shows how inmates don’t always need to be treated like babies- if you give them some freedom and privacy they will not automatically take advantage of it. Overall I used this article to allude to the idea that prisons everywhere could be a little bit more “open”, or looser. This is most likely wishful thinking but I figured it was still helpful to include.

11. Anna Clot-Garrell and Mar Griera. “Beyond narcissism: Towards an analysis of the public, political and collective forms of contemporary spirituality. ResearchGate. MDPI, 12 October. 2019. Web 3 November. 2021.

Background: The author of the article discusses how yoga has always been a private practice-usually either done at home or in small, organized classes. She explains how if anyone were to randomly do yoga, say, at work or at the store, they would immediately be judged and deemed narcissistic. This is something I agree with because it’s strange, yet this article shows how that viewpoint of “strange” is all just a social construct we came to know, but there’s actually nothing weird about taking care of your body and mind. The author wants to spark social change. She references a lot of other authors who have studied yoga in public places, and even prisons, but this article is not an official study itself.

How I used it: This article was great for my causal argument because I was trying to discuss the negative perceptions of yoga throughout the country. This author helped me explain how people view the practice and once we get over this, all the benefits of yoga can be reaped publicly without any shame or criticism. I used a quote that highlights how there are stereotypes of yoga-practicing individuals to be “narcissistic.” This was a much-needed paragraph in my research paper because up until the causal argument, some of the material may have seemed a bit out-of-touch with how many people actually like or care about yoga. This showed the audience that I can be reasonable and acknowledge people’s preconceived notions, but that doesn’t take away from the facts.

12. Prison yoga project. “Prison Yoga Project”. (n.d.). Web 3 November. 2021.

Background: Prison Yoga Project is a nonprofit organization that is aiming to bring yoga classes all across American prisons. The link is not to a specific article but to the website’s home page instead. From there one can see a lot of pictures, links, videos, stats, and even quotes from rehabilitated inmates themselves who have already participated.

How I used it: This was a great site to reference for my causal argument because it answers the questions of “where do we go from here?” and “what does the future hold?” The cause of yoga in prisons can be seen right here, along with a few other organizations I mentioned in the same paragraph, because it shows how incredibly easy and possible it is to get things started. More specifically, I used Prison Yoga Project in my paper to show the popularity of the whole concept. I said they have sent out over 33,0000 free copies of their book, so that the audience knows they are working hard to spread the word. I also used a quote from M.V., one of the inmates who volunteered to share a statement about the program. M.V. showed had yoga can have a huge impact on anybody, even one who knows they are not getting released; yoga allowed M.V. to focus on the positives and find something to bring them peace, no matter their situation.

13. Michael Ryan Alexander. “Correctional Recreation: An Overview.” DigitalCommons.MurrayState.Edu. (n.d.). Web 3 November. 2021.

Background: This is a sixty-page long document from Murray State University that goes over all of the rules and regulations for correctional recreation. There are a surplus of laws provided that show minimum required recreation time, and the author overall advocates for it, saying that recreation time is an important tool and it should not be overlooked. There are so many other papers quoted by Alexander that can potentially give me more sources and more information on, not only recreation time, but schedules to prisons around the United States.

How I used it: This was important to include at the end of my essay because it also ties into the causal argument. If the audience is going to ask “well what’s next?” or “how can this be done?” I need to supply assurance that this is possible for the future. I used this source to show how prisons are required to give their inmates five hours of recreation per week for exercise and other activities. I think leading up to this the readers thought yoga would be too time consuming, but really just ten minutes of yoga a day can have a great impact. It doesn’t need to take up the whole time frame in order to be effective. This paragraph helped me show this and for that reason I think this was a useful source.

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Research Paper-SunshineGirl

Prisons, or at least good prisons worth writing about, are constantly looking for ways to improve themselves as establishments. Such ways include, but are not limited to, actively engaging inmates in sports and exercise, improving sanitation for daily life of inmates, having inmates grow food on institution property that they can later harvest and eat for better health, and even authorities and staff implementing cultural practices to give inmates a sense of pride in their backgrounds. These are all relatively new processes that are still being studied, and the one that sticks out is the use of yoga and meditation.

We’ve been brainwashed by popular culture to believe all inmates are hostile and it seems like such a bizarre practice for people who are viewed as barbarians by the general public- could a person leading a violent life of crime really convert to inner peace and spirituality? To evaluate this, and to change our negative perception of prisoners, one must look closely at how yoga affects the prisoners’ lives in and out of the penitentiary. It’s not enough to ease their minds and stress levels, but to really make a difference within them so that they are never imprisoned again. The recent studies on this topic have done a great job of this, which is why one can conclude that using yoga as a diversionary practice in penitentiaries will lower the overall rate of recidivism.

To begin, it’s important to understand that recidivism is the “tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend,” as written by Oxford Languages. That said, to establish a sense that prisons have improved over the last decades and that these programs do in fact make a difference, it’s necessary to explain records from the US Department Of Justice on rates of recidivism from the years 1970, 1978, and 1980. In 1986, authors G Gaes, H Lebowitz, and E Singleton reported that “the random samples of releases, limited to inmates whose sentences were longer than 1 year and 1 day… were respectively 51.4 percent for 1970 , 43.9 percent for 1978, and 38 percent for 1780.” Most of these special programs were established in the 1970s in sort of a hippie/bring-peace-to-everyone act, so it’s easy to see the correlation. Specifically, these programs impact recidivism rates by shaping the inmates’ mindsets and reforming them into peaceful, compliant citizens through means of lowering stress levels and improving mental states.

In the 2005 article “Free Inside: A Program to Help Inmates Cope with Life in Prison at Maui Community Correctional Center,”authors Elizabeth Duncombe, Dawna Komorsky, Evaon Wong-Kim, and Winston M Turner state that there are eight crucial requirements needed for an inmate’s graceful adjustment to prison life, “privacy, safety, structure, support, emotional feedback, social stimulation, activity, and freedom.” Yoga, a practice performed by the ancient Indians since 3000 B.C., has the ability to meet all eight of these requirements in its own way, even in a stressful jail setting. The poses and stretches provide great physical stimulation, but the part that gives inmates the most clarity and relaxation is the spirituality of it all. Yoga has a property that soothes and heals the mind of any stress or negativity; even on a grand scale it chips away at unwanted nerve expression in the body.

Moreso, in the 2020 article “A Systematic Review of Literature: Alternative Offender Rehabilitation—Prison Yoga, Mindfulness, and Meditation,” author Dragana Derlic establishes the facts that loneliness, trauma, and absence of freedom in the prison are all factors that contribute to an inmate’s mental and emotional deterioration, sometimes resulting in anxiety and depression as they become filled with anger and hatred at the world. Recall the stigma that prisoners are naturally violent and aggressive by nature. Derlic contradicts this by showing how most of the time it’s the bleak day-to-day routine of the prison itself that leads to increasingly angrier inmates, and therefore, inmates that will tend to reoffend. The institutions operate like a food production factory, taking in one-time convicted individuals, grinding them up with the inadequate standards of living, and popping them out on an assembly line even more confused and hate-filled than before. Life without any physical or mental stimulation is so boring and colorless, and it makes sense that it can get inside of and twist the human mind, something that’s evolutionarily structured with a thirst for knowledge and abstract thought, which is incredibly hard to come by in a prison setting. Sometimes all these inmates need is an outlet, a hobby that allows for expression and creativity, just like anyone does, and yoga can be just that.

In 2018, researchers Doctor Sfendla and colleagues incorporated voluntary yoga into the daily routine of a random sample of prisoners in their article “Yoga Practice Reduces the Psychological Distress Levels of Prison Inmates.” They found that there was a significant decrease in “paranoia, suspicion, and fearful thoughts and had a positive effect on obsessive-compulsive disorder,” as well as a “significant improvement in both positive and negative psychotic symptoms in participants with schizophrenia.” This undeniably supports the idea that yoga is a benefactor in mental health disorders as well, which attributes to a big percentage of those incarcerated today in prisons rather than mental institutions because they do not receive the proper testing or treatment. Going back to Derlic, in her article she explains how the main goal of the program she studied was to “help inmates adjust to the environment around them and to provide them with the skills necessary to be successful upon release.” This measure of success is how they live their lives after the fact and whether or not they resort to their old ways, getting tied back up into a life of ongoing crime.

This holds true for inmates with severe mood issues like mental health illnesses, however, the argument that yoga in prisons will lower the rates of recidivism might not hold the same weight when dealing with mentally stable prisoners who were simply born into the wrong circumstances and were forced to use crime as a crutch. Again, Oxford Languages tells us that recidivism is the “tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend,” and a specific study documented in 2020 by authors Shaked Kovalsky, Badi Hasisi, Noam Haviv, and Ety Elisha demonstrates this without focusing on the mental statuses and spiritual transcendence of the prisoners, but simply the recidivism rates. It shows not only the correlation between implementation of yoga programs and the reductions of recidivism, but the causation between them through solid evidence.

The article, “Can Yoga Overcome Criminality? The Impact of Yoga on Recidivism in Israeli Prisons,” shows the exact findings and conclusions of an experiment between released prisoners who voluntarily participated in yoga classes during incarceration compared to a control group of released prisoners who had no yoga experience during their time in jail. The credibility of this experiment was ensured by creating a “propensity-score matching system,” and a statistical follow up of over five years. The study found that after the first year the control group had a reincarceration rate of 15.91% while the group that practiced yoga had a rate of only 5.67%. Additionally, for the results two years later, the control group had a rate of 26.57% as compared to the yoga group of 4.77%. For the third year, the results were 31.30% and 4.42% and for the fourth year it was 37.10% versus 4.42%. Amazingly, logged over five years post-release, 40.72% of the control group was incarcerated while only 4.66% of the group that practiced yoga was.

This is groundbreaking data that supports the idea that yoga leads to reduced rates of recidivism, and not just immediately but over extended periods of time. Mood and stress levels are things that fluctuate constantly and if yoga solely helped to ease these factors, it would not have an effect on an inmate’s mood five years after being released from jail because it obviously would have changed. This study also goes to show that yoga doesn’t only affect the mentally ill, because it had significant results on the population that was not a random sample; The participants were specifically picked out to be studied based on a propensity-score matching scale to eliminate any bias or sources of error. The definition of pure recidivism is foggy and misused often, but this research demonstrates that using yoga in prisons does more than rehabilitate the inmates, it diverts them away from violence and crime altogether to be reformed in physical, mental, and spiritual ways.

While there is evidence that yoga had a positive effect on one Israeli prison, the main argument this topic is faced with is that, if this rehab method does work, it might only work for prisons in the USA where we are a bit more lenient with the prisoners’ lifestyles, schedules, etc. However, other international studies suggest that yoga has a positive effect on prisoners all over the globe. While they might not focus on recidivism directly, the following article shows how yoga can benefit any prisoner on a psychological level. A study done in Catalan, Spain provides the necessary psychological research to withstand any rebuttal that this is a situational problem. The 2016 study, “Yoga in Penitentiary Settings: Transcendence, Spirituality, and Self-Improvement,” documented by Mar Griera, states that “modern prisons are institutions founded on the rehabilitative ideal,” meaning the primary prisons of research are moral, and this excludes, from any research, any immoral prisons in smaller, less wealthy countries.

The target penitentiaries are those that allow their inmates free time and their own human rights. Another attribute of this study is that all the yoga instructors were volunteers, so the eight-week program was conducted at virtually no cost. Furthermore, Griera concludes that “yoga, along with meditation, has gained presence in the penitentiary settings of many different countries like the US, Switzerland, Chile, the UK, and many others.” This summarizes only some of the multitude of studies done on this topic. Although, it alludes to the idea that this is an international method of rehabilitation, and therefore recidivism, because prisoners with a relaxed mindset are less likely to be affiliated with criminal activity in their years after release.

To further prove this, in their article “Participation in a 10-week Course of Yoga Improves Behavioural Control and Decreases Psychological Distress in a Prison Population”, Amy C. and colleagues study 167 randomly selected inmates from seven different British prisons. The researchers studied the effects of a ten-week yoga course and compare the results to a control group; Specifically, the inmates’ moods, behaviors, and levels of stress were monitored alongside a cognitive-behavioral test to measure psychological data. The study was considered an “exploratory trial” and the researchers did not take into consideration the possible reduction of recidivism, as they simply wanted to find out the instant psychological results.

In this experiment which was conducted in 2013, there were eight simple yoga positions used without meditation and the results are as follow. Amy C. reported that “prisoners who were randomly assigned to attend a ten-week yoga intervention reported improved mood, reduced stress, and reduced psychological distress… Furthermore,  participants  in  the  yoga  group  demonstrated improved performance in a cognitive-behavioural task.” This proves that yoga has an immediate effect on the lives of prisoners, and even if it won’t change their personalities or convert them into spiritual beings, it does have an effect on their behavior- and that’s something that everyone can agree is beneficial in a prison setting. This article also shows how yoga, an ancient eastern practice, can affect any human regardless of their location or situation. It’s not just an American scheme to make more money/please the public. There have been multiple studies done worldwide that demonstrate how yoga has a positive impact on the lives of convicted criminals.

Lastly, there is a 2019 article called “Lessons in Flexibility: Introducing a Yoga Program in an Australian Prison,” by authors Anthony Hopkins, Lorana Bartels, and Lisa Oxman that conducted research in an Australian prison. In compliance with the Yoga Foundation and the ACT Services (Australian Capitol Territory) they “introduced a pilot yoga program at the Alexander  Maconochie Centre” and the results  “advocate for the expansion of such programs in Australian prisons,” according to Hopkins. The study partook at the Alexander Manconochie Centre, or the AMC, which is the main housing location for every adult prisoner in the ACT. Hopkins documented in the article from 2019 that a majority of the prisoners were hardcore, they were tattoo-covered and muscular, convicted of high-scale felonies. Again, this research concludes that yoga has a highly positive impact on the participants, and this also goes to show that the use of yoga in penitentiaries is not only effective for common American prisoners convicted with relatively “permissible crimes”, but also for the  prisoners who have committed more severe crimes. Of course, no crime is permissible because it breaks the law, but there is a difference between a prisoner whose minor demeanors have accumulated their sentence time and a prisoner who has committed a greater crime that deems them guilty for ten plus years, for example. That said, the use of yoga in prisons can be used on a grand scale and not just for American prisons because it is a psychological concept that can, with the right tools, be used worldwide.

On a broader spectrum, this level of rehabilitation might not seem possible to the average American because we might not know any better. However, there are many different instances where prisons would readily accept yoga class implementations because their prisons are “open”. For example, in Finland there are a number of “open prisons” where “prisoners apply to be there and the facilities don’t have gates, locks or uniforms. Prisoners earn money…and can also choose to study toward a university degree instead of working. Finland realized incarceration is not the answer to social problems,” as deemed by author Natalie Moore in 2021. This might be unrealistic to ask of penitentiaries around the world, since their systems and structures are already established, but it’s an interesting thing to consider. If the United States viewed prison as a more rehabilitative program versus a program of strictly punishment, there would be ample opportunity for improvement. 

The idea that yoga will reduce recidivism in penitentiaries is not one that comes without skepticism. However, there have been numerous studies done internationally that refute these claims and offer support that yoga and meditation calm the inmates’ minds, stress, and behaviors, ultimately resulting in the reduction of crime for the foreseeable future. This is not limited to the prisons of America, as this principle has stretched far beyond the border, positively affecting prisoners anywhere from Spain to Australia and beyond.

Again, the  generic outcome of these international studies has been a positive effect on mood, behavior, etc., but there are some circumstances where the individuals are completely transformed, physically and spiritually. Take into consideration that prisoners are spiritual people. While they may not be peace-sign flashing, gong-ringing, John Lennon sunglass-wearing individuals, they do contain a spiritual side. Every human on this planet is spiritual, in a sense, because our energy is recycled (at least according to Albert Einstein) and we are all part of the Earth, even if some people have not discovered their connection yet. Prisoners are no exception, and with a little time and effort, they can experience peace and tranquility, regardless of their past. Over the last few decades, yoga, an ancient practice of poses, breath control, and meditation, has been implemented into many penitentiaries as a form of rehabilitation. The evidence that yoga stabilizes the inmates’ stress levels and tempers, as well as reduces the likelihood of reincarcerations, is very prominent. However, since these programs are unconventional, there is a stigma behind it, and the practice is seen as “strange” and “useless” in its context. Many institutions refuse to reap the benefits of yoga in prisons because of this, which leaves the future a mystery. Although, with more explanation and promotion of these studies, the right people will be persuaded and yoga will be used as a diversionary method in many prisons in the years to come.

To properly advocate for the discredited practice one must first overcome the stigma surrounding it. In her 2019 article “Beyond Narcissism: Towards an Analysis of the Public, Political and Collective Forms of Contemporary Spirituality”, author Anna Clot-Garrell describes how the “stereotypical portraits of holistic spirituality have usually depicted its followers as narcissistic individuals.” To combat this stereotype, she, with the help of others, put together an experiment consisting of yoga classes at three different Catalan prison locations from 2013 to 2015. Different methods of data collection were used including peer observation, surveys, and in-depth interviews to understand the inmates’ true judgements of yoga before and after the programs, according to Clott-Garrel.

The idea was to minimize the scrutiny by bringing yoga off its pedestal of narcissism, and create a public, communal environment of bettering oneself. These researchers determined that when brought out of the private sphere yoga is encased in, the participants’ opinions changed drastically and the classes were collectively sought after by the population of the experiment. Clot-Garrel concluded that “nowadays” (many years after the experiment), “almost all penitentiary institutions in Catalonia offer yoga classes for inmates, in addition to other spiritual practices such as meditation or reiki. This provision is not exclusive to Catalan prisons but represents a general trend identifiable in several countries ranging from Switzerland, to the United States, Mexico and India.” This demonstrates how, if given a chance, yoga can be an effective medium to diminish the stigmatization of spirituality, and create a desire for self-improvement and tranquility, even for prison inmates.

While these findings are a significant milestone for the yoga in prisons movement, it’s difficult to foresee the future on a national scale. The problems of practicality like cost and time restraints are still hindering the spread of this rehabilitation device. In order to promote yoga in prisons and spark change in the legal system, word must get out about how simple and cost-effective it is to establish these programs in penitentiaries. There are several nonprofit organizations helping to advertise these practices such as PrisonYogaProject, YogaBehindBars, PrisonYogaAndMeditation, and WorldPrem. PrisonYogaProject alone has provided over 75 different prison locations across the United States with yoga courses, and has sent over 33,000 complimentary copies of their book “Yoga: a Path for Healing and Recovery” to incarcerated persons. This organization is an example of the potential popularity of the yoga in prisons initiative.

Furthermore, inmate M.V. of the RJ Donovan State Prison in San Diego, CA, can attest to the healing and transcendental properties of yoga. He/she is an active participant in yoga classes and told PrisonYogaProject officials that “being a lifer at times becomes a bit rough… yoga gives me a mirror that I can see my reflection in all day, every day, to feel and live. I cleanse myself, I heal myself. I put myself together to become whole. It’s different from the ego…The renewal is exactly what yoga seeks, evolution, knowing that change is possible in a way that is organic,” and this is all documented on the PrisonYogaProject website. While M.V. is a ‘lifer’ and therefore cannot be included as an example of reduction of recidivism, he/she demonstrates how these programs can have an everlasting effect on an inmate of any sentence or situation, no matter how useless it may seem at first glance. More so, these nonprofits show how yoga programs do not need to take an economical toll on the legal system, and these concerns are obsolete.

Another feared complication of functionality for yoga in prisons is the time requirement. Most prisons around the world are already dead set on a strict schedule of roll-call, meal time, telephone calls, and retiring/sleeping time, which may convey the impression that yoga simply won’t fit into the lives of the inmates. A document made in 2017 outlining the standard recreational time policies prisons are to adhere to, “Correctional Recreation: An Overview” by author Michael Ryan Alexander, refutes this idea. Alexander emphasizes the importance of recreational time for prisoners, and states that the rulings of the U.S. legal system have “resulted in a general standard that inmates are entitled to five hours of recreation per week.” This is required in every prison in the United States. It may not seem like a big time frame, but if the stigma around yoga vanishes altogether, most prisoners would opt to spend their time relaxing and healing instead of lollygagging around the prison doing their usual activities.

Overall, the future of yoga in prisons is straightforward and the implementation of more programs is achievable. The only obstacles to overcome are the judgements of prison officials; to combat the preconceived notion that yoga is only for eccentric, bohemian people to practice in their private lives. Studies show that yoga does in fact reduce recidivism at impressive rates, it’s just a matter of wardens and officials understanding and complying with the data. It’s unrealistic to predict yoga will be used in every prison institution worldwide, but as for the United States, the facts are all laid out and it’s up to them to make the next move to better their institutions. If this is achieved, yoga will have a substantial effect on not only the prisoners themselves, but the penitentiaries in general by lowering rates of recidivism and, by correlation, helping the country stay safe.

References

Oxford Languages and Google-English.” Oxford Languages, (n.d). Web 2 November. 2021.

G G Gaes. “Recidivism Among Federal Offenders.” US Department of Justice, 1986. Web 2 November. 2021.

Dragana Derlic. “A Systematic Review of Literature: Alternative Offender Rehabilitation—Prison Yoga, Mindfulness, and Meditation.” Sage Journals. Journal of Correctional Health, 15 September. 2020. Web 25 October. 2021.

Elizabeth Duncombe, Dawna Komorsky, Evaon Wong-Kim, and Winston M Turner. “Free Inside: A Program to Help Inmates Cope with Life in Prison at Maui Community Correctional Center.” ResearchGate. California Journal of Health Promotion, December. 2005. Web 2 November. 2021.

Anis Sfendla, Petter Malmström, Sara Torstensson, and Nóra Kerekes . “Yoga Practice Reduces the Psychological Distress Levels of Prison Inmates.” NCBI. Fronteirs in Psychiatry, 3 September. 2018. Web 2 November. 2021

Shaked Kovalsky, Badi Hasisi, Noam Haviv, and Ety Elisha. “Can Yoga Overcome Criminality? The Impact of Yoga on Recidivism in Israeli Prisons.” PubMed. National Library of Medicine, 14 April. 2020. Web 25 October. 2021.

Amy C. Bilderbeck, Miguel FariasInti, A. Brazil, Sharon Jakobowitz, Catherine Wikholm. “Participation in a 10-week course of yoga improves behavioural control and decreases psychological distress in a prison population”. Elsevier. Journal of Psychiatric research,  18 June. 2013. Web. 9 December. 2021.

Anthony Hopkins, Lorana Bartels, Lisa Oxman. “Lessons in Flexibility: Introducing a Yoga Program in an Australian Prison”. Proquest. Crime Justice Journal, 2019. Web 9 December. 2021.

Mar Griera. “Yoga in Penitentiary Settings: Transcendence, Spirituality, and Self-Improvement”. Proquest. Springer Science+Business Media, 29 July. 2016. Web 14 December. 2021.

Natalie Moore. “Finland’s Open Prisons”. Pulitzer Center, 2 September. 2021. Web 18 December 2021.

Anna Clot-Garrell and Mar Griera. “Beyond narcissism: Towards an analysis of the public, political and collective forms of contemporary spirituality. ResearchGate. MDPI, 12 October. 2019. Web 3 November. 2021.

Prison Yoga Project”. (n.d.). Web 3 November. 2021.

Michael Ryan Alexander. “Correctional Recreation: An Overview.” DigitalCommons.MurrayState.Edu. (n.d.). Web 3 November. 2021.

Posted in Portfolio FA21, Research FA21, SunshineGirl, Unverified Portfolio Sunshine Girl | 3 Comments

Rebuttal-SunshineGirl

While there is evidence that yoga had a positive effect on one Israeli prison, the main argument this topic is faced with is that, if this rehab method does work, it might only work for prisons in the USA where we are a bit more lenient with the prisoners’ lifestyles, schedules, etc. However, other international studies suggest that yoga has a positive effect on prisoners all over the globe. While they might not focus on recidivism directly, the following article shows how yoga can benefit any prisoner on a psychological level. A study done in Catalan, Spain provides the necessary psychological research to withstand any rebuttal that this is a situational problem. The 2016 study, documented by Mar Griera, states that “modern prisons are institutions founded on the rehabilitative ideal,” meaning the primary prisons of research are moral, and this excludes, from any research, any immoral prisons in smaller, less wealthy countries.

The target penitentiaries are those that allow their inmates free time and their own human rights. Another attribute of this study is that all the yoga instructors were volunteers, so the eight-week program was conducted at virtually no cost. Furthermore, Griera concludes that “yoga, along with meditation, has gained presence in the penitentiary settings of many different countries like the US, Switzerland, Chile, the UK, and many others.” This summarizes only some of the multitude of studies done on this topic. Although, it alludes to the idea that this is an international method of rehabilitation, and therefore recidivism, because prisoners with a relaxed mindset are less likely to be affiliated with criminal activity in their years after release.

To further prove this, in their article “Participation in a 10-week Course of Yoga Improves Behavioural Control and Decreases Psychological Distress in a Prison Population”, Amy C. and colleagues study 167 randomly selected inmates from seven different British prisons. The researchers studied the effects of a ten-week yoga course and compare the results to a control group; Specifically, the inmates’ moods, behaviors, and levels of stress were monitored alongside a cognitive-behavioral test to measure psychological data. The study was considered an “exploratory trial” and the researchers did not take into consideration the possible reduction of recidivism, as they simply wanted to find out the instant psychological results.

In this experiment which was conducted in 2013, there were eight simple yoga positions used without meditation and the results are as follow. Amy C. reported that “prisoners who were randomly assigned to attend a ten-week yoga intervention reported improved mood, reduced stress, and reduced psychological distress… Furthermore,  participants  in  the  yoga  group  demonstrated improved performance in a cognitive-behavioural task.” This proves that yoga has an immediate effect on the lives of prisoners, and even if it won’t change their personalities or convert them into spiritual beings, it does have an effect on their behavior- and that’s something that everyone can agree is beneficial in a prison setting. This article also shows how yoga, an ancient eastern practice, can affect any human regardless of their location or situation. It’s not just an American scheme to make more money/please the public. There have been multiple studies done worldwide that demonstrate how yoga has a positive impact on the lives of convicted criminals.

Lastly, there is a 2019 article by authors Anthony Hopkins, Lorana Bartels, and Lisa Oxman that conducted research in an Australian prison. In compliance with the Yoga Foundation and the ACT Services (Australian Capitol Territory) they “introduced a pilot yoga program at the Alexander  Maconochie Centre” and the results  “advocate for the expansion of such programs in Australian prisons,” according to Hopkins. The study partook at the Alexander Manconochie Centre, or the AMC, which is the main housing location for every adult prisoner in the ACT. Hopkins documented in the article from 2019 that a majority of the prisoners were hardcore, they were tattoo-covered and muscular, convicted of high-scale felonies. Again, this research concludes that yoga has a highly positive impact on the participants, and this also goes to show that the use of yoga in penitentiaries is not only effective for common American prisoners convicted with relatively “permissible crimes”, but also for the  prisoners who have committed more severe crimes. Of course, no crime is permissible because it breaks the law, but there is a difference between a prisoner whose minor demeanors have accumulated their sentence time and a prisoner who has committed a greater crime that deems them guilty for ten plus years, for example. That said, the use of yoga in prisons can be used on a grand scale and not just for American prisons because it is a psychological concept that can, with the right tools, be used worldwide.

On a broader spectrum, this level of rehabilitation might not seem possible to the average American because we might not know any better. However, there are many different instances where prisons would readily accept yoga class implementations because their prisons are “open”. For example, in Finland there are a number of “open prisons” where “prisoners apply to be there and the facilities don’t have gates, locks or uniforms. Prisoners earn money…and can also choose to study toward a university degree instead of working. Finland realized incarceration is not the answer to social problems,” as deemed by author Natalie Moore in 2021. So if the United States viewed prison as a more rehabilitative program versus a program of strictly punishment, there would be ample opportunity for improvement.  

The idea that yoga will reduce recidivism in penitentiaries is not one that comes without skepticism. However, there have been numerous studies done internationally that refute these claims and offer support that yoga and meditation calm the inmates’ minds, stress, and behaviors, ultimately resulting in the reduction of crime for the foreseeable future. This is not limited to the prisons of America, as this principle has stretched far beyond the border, positively affecting prisoners anywhere from Spain to Australia and beyond.

References

Amy C. Bilderbeck, Miguel FariasInti, A. Brazil, Sharon Jakobowitz, Catherine Wikholm. “Participation in a 10-week course of yoga improves behavioural control and decreases psychological distress in a prison population”. Elsevier. Journal of Psychiatric research,  18 June. 2013. Web. 9 December. 2021

Anthony Hopkins, Lorana Bartels, Lisa Oxman. “Lessons in Flexibility: Introducing a Yoga Program in an Australian Prison”. Proquest. Crime Justice Journal, 2019. Web 9 December. 2021.

Mar Griera. “Yoga in Penitentiary Settings: Transcendence, Spirituality, and Self-Improvement”. Proquest. Springer Science+Business Media, 29 July. 2016. Web 14 December. 2021.

Natalie Moore. “Finland’s Open Prisons”. Pulitzer Center, 2 September. 2021. Web 18 December 2021.

Posted in Rebuttal Argument FA21, SunshineGirl | Leave a comment

Portfolio-LevixVice

Visual Rhetoric

Visual Rhetoric: Ad Council–Textual Harassment

00:01-00:6 Even when the morning sun shines, the girl sleeps on her bed. Surrounding her bed are a bunch of clothes, towels, and various dark to green blankets, as well as all different kinds of pillows. The door itself is only halfway opened during the video, with the focus only on the doorframe that her sleeping posture is slightly perturbed on her right side. But before anything else, her life-sized phone from the early 2000s, which was supposed to look outdated with a dull pink color during the publishing of the video created by a small group of indie developers, turned on and began talking to her through his phone screen via yellow lighting, in which the phone is looking at her to wake up from her slumber. Which she completely ignores and returns to sleep as if she doesn’t want to hear any of it, being a teenager and annoyed by the phone.

00:10–00:14 The girl is with her family eating breakfast, which is zoomed out to show the kitchen that has no lighting and is connected to where they eat, including the turned off stove and baskets of oranges, apples, and bananas separate from each other. The walls have a unique pattern, even the blue painting near where they eat, but the lighting is now centered around her family, being her brother, father, and mother, perceptively, and the round table itself. Her body posture is slumped and frowning while her phone lights up and talks to her again before turning off for a brief moment. The mother is looking at her son, and it looks like she is lecturing him, while the father is looking at something like a newspaper, it seems. When the girl is outside, she is wearing white shorts over gray leggings with sneakers, while having a plaid hoodie carrying her backpack, and the life-size phone is walking with her on the road crossing with a sign saying “do not enter.” The environment looks like it is morning, meaning she is going to school in a suburban community with trees with nothing on them. It is the fall season, with the sky somewhat of a grayish blue. The phone began speaking to her with its head toward her while she just ignored what it had to say. 

0:24 At the school gym which is zoomed out to see its also an auditorium/stage for speaking, musicals, or orchestras. Her gym outfit is a yellow shirt and black leggings with the phone sitting on the ledge while the individual on her left is wearing the same yellow shirt but with a number at the back and blue shorts. Two students are walking out from the gym believing to be the end of gym class itself onto the next class or going home. The camera then zooms in on both her and the phone which then lights up again to talk while she stands emotionless next to the ledge, and two students wave after the phone turns off, and she simply waves back with no effort as her face is frowning from what the phone is saying. 

0:26-0:30 Now what seems to be the evening with her friends, as this might be one of her friends’ houses, four are on the couch, one lying on a pillow and another sitting on the floor, wrapped in the living room watching TV or a movie, as it seems that they are laughing at something comedic with two lamps turned on from each side of the room. Her behavior around her friends is more cheerful until the phone lights up again as the camera zooms in towards its face/screen with its face changing towards a more hostile approach and speaking to her. That makes her even more annoyed by the phone trying to talk to her while she is with her friends.

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x Background: This article was used for the Spotted Lanternflies of their flight pattern and velocity during their breach in America when getting their food from fruit trees, vines, and normal trees for their bark. In order gather food to fuel up and a nest to lay their eggs during the winter months. How I used It: The ground speed used as a running mark before taking flight upwards to their destination as create a mental map of their flight capability that also helps them to spread from place to place within a short distance.

2. Houping Liu, Oviposition Substrate Selection, Egg Mass Characteristics, Host Preference, and Life History of the Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 48, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages 1452–1468, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz123

Background: This article contains the essential nutrients and egg nests for Spotted Lanternflies which are in fact plant trees and trees from the forest. It also includes how the female of the species would reproduce before the winter season arrives with measurements.

How I used It: The egg masses were all measured by their height, width, and depth as well as the density being how much eggs that female laid on each preferred tree they would used for the right amount. It also knows about the days on which the eggs will hatch to their growth over time becomes different.

3. “Spotted Lanternfly.” About the Spotted Lanternfly, Department of Agriculture, https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/pi/prog/pests-diseases/spotted-lanternfly/about/.

Background: This article describe what each life stage of a spotted Lanternfly would turn out to be with their abilities and coloration from nymphs to adult forms.

How I used It: This was used as a continuation from the previous article to explain more of their cycle in description revealing more info about the egg masses would look like mud in September into harden dirt in June.

4. Dechaine, Andrew Chase. “Phenology, Impact, and Rearing of Lycorma Delicatula (White) (Spotted Lanternfly) in Virginia .” VTechWorks Home, Virginia Tech, 2 Apr. 2021, https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930

Background: Phenology for the Spotted Lanternfly has progressed within America impacting farming and the environment for the worse through sampling and evidence to counteract these pest.

How I Used It: The counteractions were created in order to cull the Spotted Lanternfly through the methods of insecticides on trees to be protected from those flies and eventually kill them including using the insecticide on their favorite plant, the Tree of Heaven (A. altissima).

5. Liu, Houping, and Jason Mottern. Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 27 Jan. 2017, https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article/17/1/18/2875340.

Background: This article contains information about the existence of the Gypsy Moth’s encyrtid egg parasitoid called the Ooencyrtus kuvanae that used to control the Gypsy Moth population in America from the 1900s.

How I Used It: This parasitoid can be used effectively against the Spotted Lanternflies through implanting the host the eggs into a biological sense to protected and then be eaten off in any life stage the Lanternfly would be in, whether inside the egg masses during winter.

6. Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw.

Background: The insecticide used on agriculture from the northeast to protect shrubs and fruit trees before the harvest starts during the fall season.

How I used It: This would be connected to number four for protection from the Spotted Lanternflies, that even stopping the egg masses from being planted.

7. Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Academic.oup.com, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627?login=true.

Background: Methods on capturing Spotted Lanternflies from where they live and before winter time comes around.

How I used It: Such capturing methods include the weaknesses of each Lanternfly of their preferred tree, the stage they are in, and how effective trap can be to cull the insects fully.

8. Wang, Rong-Rong, et al. “Relating antennal sensilla diversity and possible species behaviour in the planthopper pest Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae).” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 3, 27 Mar. 2018, p. e0194995. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A532485920/AONE?u=rowan&sid=bookmark-AONE&xid=9a13d451. Accessed 6 Dec. 2021.

Background: This details the differences the male and female Spotted Lanternfly through biological process as well as behavioral senses that extends from their sensory structures.

How I used It: I connect it to number 4 and 3 of their species being planthopper to learn their weaknesses and exploiting them without the need of insecticides that would harm other creatures as well.

9. Lawrence Barringer, Claire M Ciafré, Worldwide Feeding Host Plants of Spotted Lanternfly, With Significant Additions From North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 999–1011, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa093

Background: Spotted Lanternflies depend on tree nutrients; such as the bark and tree sap that contains the sugar to refuel to survive and reproduce.

How I use it: I’ll use it to connect it with number two and seven to use this knowledge to plant traps around the tree.

10. Liu, Houping. “Occurrence, Seasonal Abundance, and Superparasitism of Ooencyrtus Kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as an Egg Parasitoid of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma Delicatula) in North America.” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 22 Jan. 2019, https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/2/79#cite.

Background: contains the functionality of superparasitism of how the Ooencyrtus Kuvanae wasp uses upon its prey of choice.

How I use it: connect it with number 5 with how the wasp would plant parasites inside the Spotted Lanternflies’ eggs and it effect on the offspring when it hatches.

11. Mohn, Aprille Noelle. “Anxiety: Environmental and Otherwise – Jayscholar.etown.edu.” JayScholar, Elizabethtown College, Mar. 2021, https://jayscholar.etown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=englstu.

Background: This contains the environmental anxiety around the world and it includes the invasive species hazard that would harm natural balance.

How I use it: To associate it with Spotted Lanternflies as a invasive species that would decrease the tree population and make worse for the other species.

12. Liu, Houping. “Seasonal Development, Cumulative Growing Degree-Days, and Population Density of Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on Selected Hosts and Substrates.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 1 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1171/5879580?login=true.

Background: The population density for Spotted Lanternfly from their sites, substrates, and sampling to know how many are these insects are in during the research in each tree.

How I use it: researching on the trees they use for their egg masses and how will they grow in size.

13. Urban, Julie M, and Dennis Calvin. “Early Response (2018–2020) to the Threat of Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Pennsylvania.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 26 Aug. 2021, https://academic.oup.com/aesa/article-abstract/114/6/709/6358080.

Background: The history of how the Spotted Lanternflies came to America and its efforts to infest the northeast.

How I use it: becoming aware of their emergence and damage they’ve done on the landscape and since 2014.

14. Nixon, Laura J, et al. “Development of Behaviorally Based Monitoring and Biosurveillance Tools for the Invasive Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) .” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 21 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1117/5895233?login=true.

Background: monitoring the Spotted Lanternflies through the traps which the researchers can learn more about the population.

How I use it: to connect it to number 9 and 12

15. Urban, Julie M. “Perspective: Shedding Light on Spotted Lanternfly Impacts in the USA.” Wiley Online Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 10 Oct. 2019, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ps.5619.

Background: More information about the consequences of how Spotted Lanternflies will corrupt the environment as pestilence.

How I use it: to connect it with number 11 and 9 in a way the environment is becoming imbalance; due to the invasive species’ presence.

Self-Reflective Statement

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I wasn’t well versed on my first day in David Hodges’ college composition II class, because the coursework was required to be typed and the objectives had to be followed to attain optimal clarity for the people reading to form their own statements and opinions. To be honest, I was not that great at writing as it never really interested me. During this semester, I found myself pondering the practices, such as the riddles and classwork, that were related to what we needed to learn, such as: never using first person or finding counterarguments to your papers. Many of the questions Professor Hodges gave us required counterintuition in figuring out the answer. Although it may not always be simple, just trying to think outside the box would be the best approach to any situation.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

My white paper was about spotted lanternflies and their negative impact on the environment. The information I’ve provided about the looming threat to trees’ bark and sap, which are essential for growth and nourishment, is correct. Farmers who grow fruit trees and grape vines are also concerned about the impact of these insects on their valuable resources. The population was able to grow thanks to traps and research into their weaknesses, such as learning their flight patterns and determining where they prefer to rest and mate with females. These sources would be used to create a statement for people who want to learn more about the Spotted Lanternflies that are causing a nuisance in nature, and for those who want to stop them, I would need to reach out to them using persuasion and evidence to make them choose of their own free will.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My own writing needs improvement a while ago in grammar and fluency for the audience to understand what I’m trying to write down the evidence and thoughts in a clearer format. Within the context, like the visual rhetoric needed context without the sound to learn what is happening on each frame of the video. The arguments presented are somewhat in need of guidance, whether trying to argue about the Spotted Lanternfly are needed to eliminate from North America through traps and investigating their weaknesses to be exploited. Including the purpose to let the reader be more supportive for the cause.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

It somewhat met the expectations, but I still need to refine some of the skills learned from class, like getting the main idea across without confusing anyone in my sentences. Maybe during my free time at home, I would need to ask my brother or parents to check if the ideas are presented well enough for people to know if I still need improvement or not. However, I’ll get practice from the writing center and see through my work to make sure my approach to writing will change.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

The responsibilities for my work have improved throughout the semester from my portfolio and non-portfolio works in order to make sure each one is stabilized with information about Spotted Lanternflies as well include the citations to have people recognize where the information comes from in the URL. However, creating complex ideas aren’t my forte with how complex the ideas should be for the white paper and I’m not that confident in my writing because I might confuse the reader with the question that I might not figure it out myself. Nevertheless, the responsibility was handled, and I’ll concentrate on creating complex ideas that nobody has thought up before.

Definition

During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-present, spotted lanternflies (Lycorma delicatula) have invaded several areas in the northeast region of the U.S. These invasive insects are discovered to have successfully transported larvae and nymphs on firewood trading shipments from China. This has resulted in the devastation of fruit trees and grape vineyards depleting nutients and decreasing the chances of survival by causing trunk wounds and tree mold to develop. This has the potential to devastate agricultural chains and disrupt ecosystems. The primary food source for these lanternflies in their native habitat is Ailanthus altissima, also known as the “Tree of Heaven” in China; however, this plant species is also an invasive species worldwide. The lanternfliescan also eat a variety of other fruit trees from orchards in rural areas in America. Proposals for managing these invasive insects including capturing and returning them to their source, or eliminating them on sight near agricultural areas, as well as monitoring any lanternflies in the area. Spotted Lanternflies have a distinct pattern, a red body with black spots on brownish-grey wings being apart of a category of plant hopper from the eastern continents of China, India and South Korea respectively. The introduction of invasive species has opened up the topic of previous invasive species migrated mistakenly from their natural habitats to new one disrupting the natural order of nature.

The average size is 1 inch in length with a life span of one year. They are to lay around 30-50 eggs during the fall and winter season. Adult Lanternflies use upwinds to fly up 40 meters and are able to land on fruit tree orchards using their frontal wingspan and with an average airspeed of about 4.64 m/s. Anemotactic measurements are used to chart the movements of an object or thing in relation to the direction of the wind, allowing anyone to learn about their behavioral patterns. Using these measurements, researchers are able to figure out how the lanternflies use short flights to save small amounts of energy before their angled flight to the food source without exhausting themselves. Such strategy allows Lanternflies to anticipate their direction without falling to the ground, which most Lanternflies have tried and failed to do. This gives rise to the idea of how lanternflies easily migrated across the North American continent, flying from tree to tree and populating their kind to become an unstoppable force. Their average ground speed is 2.65 m/s as they take off at the 10 second mark in their bout towards the upwind by 4.64 m/s from the adult Spotted Lanternflies.

Fruit trees, such as apples, oranges, and peaches as well as grape vineyard orchards provide essential nutrients for spotted lanternflies as well as nesting grounds for their offspring, which has serious consequences for American farmers who have infestations of lanternflies and other orchard feeding bugs eating their hard-earned orchard trees, harming the economy and stores across the continent. Fruits have been treated with insecticides to keep their fresh look from being eaten away by lanternflies and other insects in the wild. Although the effects on the adult spotted lanternfly would be effective, the other issue would be the reproduction cycle of the spotted Lanternfly’s eggs and nymphs, which could be solved by using Chlorpyrifo to completely kill all the eggs from their hiding place. Another insecticide idea is to use Thiamethoxam and Bifenthrin, which are from a subcategory of insecticides that can be used to controlling insects for up to fourteen days and can be used directly on spotted lanternflies by approximately half of the population, which leaves the other half unharmed calmly. The cost of these insecticides to humans, however, would be their toxic hazard for everyone’s health, including taste and smell, if eaten by herbivore or omnivore animals, resulting in a double-edged sword for orchard protection that can eventually harm other lifeforms.

The alternative method for preventing the spread of Spotted Lanternflies in the area is to use lures and traps to capture them using their habitats such as covering tree trunks with sticky bands being the Bug Barrier or web cote tree bands with the use of methyl salicylate as the insect attractant lure from where the lanternfly might climb up, whether it’s a fruit orchard tree or a host tree, which stops them in their tracks, which was used on lanternflies that have already hatched from their eggs. The Pecan Weevil trap is also known as the Circle trunk trap because it is latched around the tree trunk by a velcro strip that’s been stapled and glued onto the jar with the insecticide strips to kill the lanternflies as well as a zipper bag that will collect them after two weeks of eliminating lanternflies in their late nymph and adult stages. The Intercept panel  creates a slip-slide effect with fluon solution and traps lanternflies in a jar with propylene glycol, which are  dumped from a paper cone strainer into a plastic bag to be sorted. Tall prism traps are similar to the sticky tree band traps, but they have an internal plastic prism supported by cables and pipes and painted brown to attract lanternflies in addition to the sticky bands around the surfaces. These traps have the greatest effect on lanternflies because the bugbarrier bands have a higher chance of capturing Lanternflies in the sticky tree bands. Regrettably, there are some disadvantages such as other insects becoming entangled in the traps and most lanternflies avoiding contact with the traps. The traps, on the other hand, have statistical value in terms of which life stage of the lanternfly prefers the attraction that surrounds the traps.

Lanternfly nymphs and adults have used their antennal sensory function to develop behavioral patterns that match their environment from their organs. The sensilla placodea and plate organ sensory have increased in size from 33 to 125 times during the nymphal instar cycle. The sexual dimorphism of adult Lanternflies sensilla placodea, which is related to mating behavior between males and females.

Reference sheet

Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x 

Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw

Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Validate User, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages 269–276, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627.

Causal

The spotted lanternflies belong to a group of plant-hoppers that eat a variety of tree nutrients, including cherry, maple, and black gum trees, which serve as both a nesting and feeding place for their young. The Lanternfly-Killing Wasp (Dryinus browni) is a parasitic wasp that brainwashes the host through stringer insertion in order to protect its babies, which will be eaten by their young. While native to four Asian continents (China, India, South Korea, and North Korea), they have been imported to the United States by firewood exports in 2014. Their influence over nine states in the United States, including New Jersey, New York, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware, has caused native insects and animals to change their diets to this new arrival, with chickens, praying mantis, and green frogs eating these insects to reduce their population in balance.

The basic goal of host trees is to provide a safe haven for migratory insects from other continents. In this case, the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima), a Chinese invasive plant, provides a safe haven for Spotted Lanternflies to hide from predators while also nurturing the next generation of Spotted Lanternflies. Trees being infested by these Spotted Lanternflies would result in tree mold and trunk wounds resulting it death creating an effect of the ecosystem’s dependency on trees. Their diet must be of plants and trees that have nutrient sap in the trunk, stem, and leaf parts of the tree indiscriminately. However, they may also consume apples, grapes (including the vines), and peaches that the Spotted Lanternfly would eat vegetables; not only do Spotted Lanternflies consume fruit and vegetables. But they also scour the land for orchards and gardens to feed on, which will become a shortage of fruit and vegetables for supermarkets into scarcity for people.

Such strategy allows Spotted Lanternflies to anticipate their direction without falling to the ground, which most lanternflies have tried and failed to do. This gives rise to the idea of how Spotted Lanternflies easily migrated across the North American continent, flying from tree to tree and populating their kind to become an unstoppable force. Their average ground speed is 2.65 m/s as they take off at the 10 second mark in their bout towards the upwind by 4.64 m/s from the adult Spotted Lanternflies. This tactic was discovered through anemotactic measurements, which charted the Spotted Lanternfly’s movements in relation to the direction of the wind, allowing anyone to learn about their behavioral patterns.

Proposals for managing these (including capturing and returning them to their source or eliminating them on sight near agricultural areas, as well as monitoring any lanternflies in the area) are both expensive and extremely complicated. The method of using traps and lures to capture Spotted Lanternflies requires patience and caution in determining the best hiding spot for these insects, which can be found in trees or other nearby objects. Such traps using sticky bands on tree trunks are made to stop them in their track through the use of insect attractant (methyl salicylate), or the Pecan Weevil trap makes use of insecticide stripes that kills the Spotted Lanternfly and drops towards a jar attached and stapled by Velcro strips, glue, and stapler onto the tree. Other methods include using chemicals to trap (fluon solution) and kill (propylene glycol) both young and adult Spotted Lanternflies being that are strained into a plastic bag, as well as building brown prisms out of cables and pipes with sticky bands wrapped around them. Using insecticides all over the trees is an extreme method of protecting both orchard and forest trees from extinction. These are not only lethal to bugs, but they can also be extremely toxic to humans and animals if they eat or smell them for both omnivore and herbivore alike.

The climate arises as a defense against adult Spotted Lanternflies in the winter season, when the freezing temperatures cause the adult population to die off, but their eggs, which are inside a host tree, will survive until spring, when they can flourish. The new generation of Spotted Lanternflies, lay about 30-50 of the egg masses produced by the female Spotted Lanternfly and will automatically die after laying 2 or 3 egg masses. Spotted lanternflies have a tendency to plan to survive through adapting in a different country with the advantages and disadvantages that they would encounter with Americans becoming more aware of how these insects will be curbed again. Traps were used to capture and eliminate them, and they were reintroduced by native animals and insects in America, as well as their motivations and behavioral instincts.

Rebuttal

Spotted lanternflies are a nuisance in America because of their destructive nature, eating away the trees’ bark and the seeds that, if planted, will become trees for the new generation. Insecticides would also help kill the insects, but would in turn harm the plants, trees, and other organisms because of their toxicity. Stopping the spread would require everyone’s cooperation to create traps to either eliminate the pests for good or relocate them to their natural habitat in China. Even with such techniques like the traps and motions to stop these spotted lanternflies from coming to America, the outcome will never change. They are now, even with the climate changing from colder to colder, stepping into the winter season, waiting to be born when spring arrives. No matter how much time is spent getting rid of them, it will automatically result in a conflict of nature to fix the imbalance caused by the Spotted Lanternfly.

These reasons are to be given as nobody can tell if the spread will ever stop. The Spotted Lanternfly has found its place in America, just like how the Gypsy Moth was introduced in 1869 as being a native insect in Europe and Asia. But the parasitoid called the Ooencyrtus Kuvanae wasp, which was introduced from Japan to America in 1909, has limited the Gypsy Moth’s spread from 1911–1971 through the laying of its eggs on the host in its caterpillar form, where the hatchling would kill the host as food. This parasitoid has also been doing the same to spotted lanternflies in 2016. This causes a rift in their spread as they are culled by this parasitoid to have their hatchlings protected by the Spotted Lanternfly and then be eaten alive after hatching. Superparasites is the use of female parasitoid behavior to lay their eggs on an insect that has already fallen prey to the parasite and has developed over time. The estimated time to plant parasites in the Spotted Lanternflies’ eggs was from when March was over to the middle of April, when scientists collected these eggs and placed them inside incubators to see the development at close hand. Parasitic wasps have also joined in the fray to lay parasitic substances on the eggs and were collected. Their emergence was recorded the following day, and the eggs were hatching from their exit holes, which determines their existence inside the hosts’ eggs. This method, using another creature that was crucial against the Gypsy Moth, is both incredible and somewhat curious. If the parasitoid can stop the spread, will the spotted lanternflies become immune to the superparasite attacks and fight back with each generation? Though this questions on how it will fair against when winter and any other events during their lifecycle, but hopefully the parasitoid can help stop the Spotted Lanternfly population from growing even more problematic for the community.

Spotted Oviposition Substrate Selection Lanternflies lay their eggs in locations other than dead tree trunks. These locations could be shrubs, building structures, or vines 200 cm above ground. Its host preferences are determined by nymphs and adults from 23 plant species (13 trees, 1 white ash, 5 shrubs, 5 vines, and 1 oriental bittersweet). The density of the egg masses ranges from 0.2 to 75.2 masses/m2, with an average of 6.0 to 6.7 egg masses/m2, but can vary between 2.3-32.5 egg masses/m2 and 0.2-45.4 egg masses/m2 depending on the substrate type.

Spotted lanternflies in their nymph stage have four instar stages that grow their bodies from May to September. The first three instar stages are all black and covered in white spots and are only 1/4 inch with the ability to leap away from any danger such as predators or environmental hazards.

My Hypothesis

  1. Spotted lanternfly eggs should return to China permanently before future generations are born.
  2.  Spotted Lanternflies must be prevented from coming into contact with firewood, hardwood, or grapes by restricting the shipping trade in China and letting their traders check out for any lanternflies.
  3. The Lanternflies’ eggs and larvae must be taken out from the firewood or any hatching area it has propagated onto and sent to a separated province where no lanternfly is near the docks or any wood. 
  4. Only through the actions of the local citizens must prevent lanternflies’ population of lanternflies from spreading in their country by either elimination of the species from other countries or by taking them off through the trading examination. 
  5. Government officials should enact a trading policy to check any invasive species such as the spotted Lanternfly from spreading over the world and creating an imbalance to the ecosystem.
  6. The destruction of the spotted lanternfly would help with the aid of the policy for invasive species to not only kill them but send them off to labs where the species can be studied under federal supervision. 
Posted in levixvice, Portfolio FA21, Portfolio LevixVice | Leave a comment

Self-reflective Statement-Levixvice

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I wasn’t well versed on my first day in David Hodges’ college composition II class, because the coursework was required to be typed and the objectives had to be followed to attain optimal clarity for the people reading to form their own statements and opinions. To be honest, I was not that great at writing as it never really interested me. During this semester, I found myself pondering the practices, such as the riddles and classwork, that were related to what we needed to learn, such as: never using first person or finding counterarguments to your papers. Many of the questions Professor Hodges gave us required counterintuition in figuring out the answer. Although it may not always be simple, just trying to think outside the box would be the best approach to any situation.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

My white paper was about spotted lanternflies and their negative impact on the environment. The information I’ve provided about the looming threat to trees’ bark and sap, which are essential for growth and nourishment, is correct. Farmers who grow fruit trees and grape vines are also concerned about the impact of these insects on their valuable resources. The population was able to grow thanks to traps and research into their weaknesses, such as learning their flight patterns and determining where they prefer to rest and mate with females. These sources would be used to create a statement for people who want to learn more about the Spotted Lanternflies that are causing a nuisance in nature, and for those who want to stop them, I would need to reach out to them using persuasion and evidence to make them choose of their own free will.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My own writing needs improvement a while ago in grammar and fluency for the audience to understand what I’m trying to write down the evidence and thoughts in a clearer format. Within the context, like the visual rhetoric needed context without the sound to learn what is happening on each frame of the video. The arguments presented are somewhat in need of guidance, whether trying to argue about the Spotted Lanternfly are needed to eliminate from North America through traps and investigating their weaknesses to be exploited. Including the purpose to let the reader be more supportive for the cause.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

It somewhat met the expectations, but I still need to refine some of the skills learned from class, like getting the main idea across without confusing anyone in my sentences. Maybe during my free time at home, I would need to ask my brother or parents to check if the ideas are presented well enough for people to know if I still need improvement or not. However, I’ll get practice from the writing center and see through my work to make sure my approach to writing will change.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

The responsibilities for my work have improved throughout the semester from my portfolio and non-portfolio works in order to make sure each one is stabilized with information about Spotted Lanternflies as well include the citations to have people recognize where the information comes from in the URL. However, creating complex ideas aren’t my forte with how complex the ideas should be for the white paper and I’m not that confident in my writing because I might confuse the reader with the question that I might not figure it out myself. Nevertheless, the responsibility was handled, and I’ll concentrate on creating complex ideas that nobody has thought up before.

Posted in levixvice, Portfolio LevixVice, Reflective FA21 | Leave a comment

A Creative Piece

Although it’s not the type you were expecting, I wanted to show you one of my writings I did for a class this year about Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. It’s short, sweet and a little childish, but I thought you’d like to see something of mine.

A Dream, A Dream, A Dream

The start and finish of all so beautiful

Yet mistrust and despair was all too juvenile

Sent away crying from the cruelty of a sire

A series of unfortunate events was about to conspirer

A tantruming child all too knowing

Connived with a puck whos grin was growing

To a flower he flew with great speed

For only a drop was what they need

Though paths were separate in onset

Their solo tales would become a duet

For the child to King had decided to intervene

But three drop of love had made the forest into something obscene

The Queen had met a man made ass

For the band of fools had trespassed

There she stare with uncontrollable lust

When the rivals are met with magic unjust

From a chase to a duel

All parties sadly became fools

For the King had seen what he had induced

Decreed for the damage to be unintroduced

Though our Queen is angered by her unwilling seduction

She gives in to the King’s absurd production

While the love birds are found in a glade at dawn

The court had no choice but to move on

Celebrations commenced for the lords and ladies of newlywed

Love’s tragedy performed by knuckleheads

As a departure for bed is under way in the moonbeams

A dream a dream a dream is all we can redeem

Posted in comatosefox, Feedback Please | 1 Comment

Visual Rhetoric – krackintheneck

In the opening scene, the camera follows the silhouette of a child down a dark hallway. The frame is cut so you can only see the half of the child’s back and up to his/her head. There is no lights on in this hallway, but on light is illuminating from a different room where presumably the child is heading towards.

The next scene is a birds eye view of a different child laying stomach down on the ground, kicking her feet, and playing with her toys. The director is showing this scene to portray that kids are going to do what they feel is fun. The mood completely shifts to a juvenile mood where the suns out shining on the little girls body. This is appealing to the audience’s logic by showing that this little girl means no harm and she is just going to do whatever makes her happy. The director has yet to show a parent up to this point supervising these children.

The next scene cuts to a living room like area, with the sun shinning through the closed blinds. Right in the middle of the screen is a big cabinet opened with a stool in front of it. On top of the stool is a child standing on his/her tip toes trying to reach for whatever is on top if the cabinet. The picture only shows the child’s legs and her/his feet barely balancing on the stool. This appeals to the audience’s pathos by being on the edge of our seat waiting to see if the stool will tip and fall over. It makes the audience anxious by not knowing what is going to happen to this child and where his/her parents are.

The next scene consists of the same little girl jumping off of her bed and crouching down to talk with her friend/brother who also is a child. Once again showing that children do not see consequences with no adults around.

The next scene is a little boy on top of a stool what looks like to be in his garage or shed. He has a flashlight pointed on top of the body of tools that he is scrounging around to most likely find something to play with.

The next scene cuts back to the other child on the stool with toys and large items falling down to the ground beside her/him. Which leads to the next scene in which the little girl crawls under her bed with her friend most likely trying to do something for their own entertainment.

Next we cut back to the boy that was in the shed and he is in the bathroom with a rolled up towel, but as an audience we are unsure what that item inside the towel is.

This brings us where the child that was on top of the stool earlier is now looking through the belongings of what she had threw on the ground finding a gun in the mist of all that. That also brings us back to the little kids under the bed bringing out a shotgun while they are playing with all the toys around it unaware of how dangerous this deadly weapon is.

Posted in KrackInTheNeck, Visual Rhetoric FA21, You Forgot to Categorize! | Leave a comment

Portfolio – krackintheneck

Research Argument

The Whole Picture


All living things need food for survival. Food is an essential part of humans lives, and will continue to be forever. Whether it’s a Snickers candy bar or just an apple, every food has nutrients that will help living things grow and evolve. Food on its own, has evolved from the very beginning. A Granny Smith apple that we all know and love has not been the same size and shape from the beginning of time. Humans have genetically manipulated each and every food without most of the public knowing. This also plays a part in humans evolving. For example, in 3000 B.C. the average height of a man was 5’3 and women were 5′ according to Jared Diamond’s The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Now, worldwide men on average are 5’8-5’9 feet tall while women are 5’3-5’4 feet tall. Nowadays, humans and many other living things are going to need bigger portions of food, and more nutrients to survive. Foods thousands of years ago would not be enough for humans to survive in 2021. Since this is the case, why does the public, overall, look down upon genetically engineering foods? Most of the public are so used to seeing the same foods over and over again that they get accustomed to these foods. They think that is how every food should look. Then once this certain food has a deformity or is just different from what they are accustomed to, they will not eat it. This can be defined as food neophobia, aversion to new foods. As people age they are likely to stop trying new foods and just have the food they were exposed to when they were younger. “As children age, they tend to be less willing to accept new foods,” Elena Faccio states in Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes toward GMOs, Insects and Cultured Meat. If we would have any chance in switching to genetically modified foods, we would need to start giving these foods to younger children. This just shows that people will not even give genetically modified foods a chance because it is different from what they are accustomed to. Neophobia “seems to be a negative predictor of willingness to taste non-traditional ethnic foods,”Faccio states. Food that is genetically modified, does not taste or even look any different from everyday foods. If anything scientists could construct any food and make it tastier or a more appealing shape. They are not looking to change the taste or look of staple foods because they do not want it to look any different. If genetically engineered foods are completely different from what the public are used to, then genetic engineers will have no chance in the public changing to their product.

All foods have been “genetically” modified in any way, shape, or form since the beginning of time. Either most humans have neglected to notice this, or they simply do not know unless a food is labeled “GMO.” In The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception, it states that Brazil is the second biggest producer of GM foods worldwide. Brazil mostly genetically modifies contents in staple foods like soy and maize. In 2003, Brazil passed a regulation stating that “both packaged and bulk products in natura that contain or are produced using GMO above the limit of 1% should be labeled and the consumer should be informed about the gene donor species at the place reserved for ingredient identification.” Meaning the public needs to be notified about what scientists genetically changed to their food. Since every food is “genetically modified” than every food should be labeled accordingly. This will never happen, but it is definitely necessary. However, according to Mariana Piton Hakim, “in 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Showing that this country relies heavily on genetically modified foods. For the most part it seems to be working. Brazil has already adapted and are ready for the future. If any problems arise they will already be able to solve them and move on.

Genetically modified foods has a negative connotation from the public. If it is not because they are scared to try different foods, then it is most likely that they are scared to take risks. Everything has a risk that humans will not know the consequence until later in life, and then we adapt and evolve from those mistakes. Genetically modifying foods are yet to show any signs of risks, so as a human race we need to start moving in their direction. If we start using them soon worldwide, we will find the problems and diagnose them earlier than later. Genetically modified foods are food that have their DNA manipulated in some way to benefit whatever the scientists are looking for. For example, most genetically modified foods/crops have their genetic material modified, so they are pesticide resistant. Most of the public do not know enough about genetically engineered crops/foods because they are neglecting them due to their own beliefs. Genetically modified foods are being looked down upon by the public even though the public knows little to nothing about them. Most do not realize that we are going to have to go in the direction of genetically modified foods for survival in the near future. Humans are eventually going to overpopulate and will not have enough food for survival. Genetically modifying foods will definitely aid in saving the human race. Not to mention they can help the environment and cause less plants to die due to pesticides.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have the ability to change the world. A more in depth definition used in the scientific field can be described as, “organisms whose genetic material has been modified in a way that doesn’t occur in nature under natural conditions of cross-breeding or natural recombination,” according to the article, Genetically Modified Organisms. GMOs have gained a bad reputation towards the majority of the public, when they can provide positive results. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, require less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger. These factors are beneficial to the public in more ways that they could be harmful. GMOs are proven to be non-harmful, illustrating another reason why genetically engineered foods can provide essential changes for the world.

One reason GMOs are beneficial to food production is because they are cost efficient.  According to the National Academy of Science, the World Health Organization, and many other major worldwide science organizations, genetically modified organisms have no evidence that they can be harmful to humans, stated by MedlinePlus. Genetic engineering provides a more cost efficient way to provide food for the public. For starters, they have a longer shelf life. This is beneficial because consumers will not have to worry about their food going bad. This shows that consumers will not need to buy more food, or spend more money. “Farmers will lower herbicides used,” Borie Theis Nielsen said in the article Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.  This could save money for the economy allowing money to be used in more needed areas. The preservation of food would cause a trickle down effect. If grocery stores make less shipments, they would not have to pay for as many shipments. Drivers would make less trips leading to saving more money. There would not be as much gas used or purchased, leading to less usage of fossil fuels. Not only would the economy be saving money, but they would also be saving limited resources. Using this scientific advancement, GMOs can save money without any unwanted consequences. 

Along with being cost efficient, GMOs do not require the use of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that are used on foods to prevent insects, fungi, and weeds from destroying crops, (Stephenson, 2006).  Although this seems like a good idea, it truly is the opposite. Pesticides are toxic to humans and the environment. Side effects may include cancer and damage the human’s reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. Ingesting these toxins at high amounts can be lethal. Pesticides can ultimately pollute the environment by contaminating the soil, water, and even the air. Too many pesticides can harm humans, wildlife, and neighboring lands. There are older pesticides that have been banned around the world. However, these remains linger in the soils and water for many years. Instead of using pesticides to increase yields, scientists can use GMOs to safely protect crops for these pests. Developing countries are already experiencing deaths from pesticides. They are one of the leading causes of death. If countries continue to use pesticides, they have the ability to end the human race. 

Solving world hunger may seem like an unattainable goal, but GMOs have the potential to end this catastrophe. People that suffer from hunger, also face malnutrition. Malnutrition directly correlates with Vitamin-A deficiency. Currently, there are 140 million children that are deficient in Vitamin-A. A portion of these children become blind and die within 12 months of losing their sight, stated by Jamil Kaiser. In order to solve this problem, scientists have begun using biotechnology to create Genetically Modified rice, also known as Golden Rice. These bio-technicians have inserted three new genes into rice that help it produce pro Vitamin-A. Kaiser believes that golden rice has the potential to save many lives including these children.

GMOs were mainly created to fight disease, resist pests, improve health, provide an easier way to produce crops, and finally give humans animals and crops the nutrients needed for survival. The public have been fighting whether or not molecular genetically modified organisms are safe for the public to consume. Most of the public does not know the true benefits genetically modified organisms have on the environment and the whole world. However, the biggest downside to genetically modified foods and organisms is the unknowingness of their side affects. They have yet to be truly diagnosed to be a negative thing. Most of the public think genetically modified foods can be detrimental to their health, and cause major pollution. Genetically modified foods are not perfect, but they would not be even considered if it caused humans or crops to die. According to Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe, author  Stefaan Blancke states that genetically engineered foods are safe to eat and benefit the environment. Genetically modified organisms go through a 7-10 year testing period where they are checked for risks against humans, livestock, wildlife, and the environment stated by the Battelle staff in Five Good Reasons to Support GMOs. Scientists observe any new proteins created by the GMOs that could allergic reactions. Battelle states that “GM food production are among the most tested products in history.” Genetically modified organisms are kept under a microscope until they are completely ready to be released to the public. There are lots of protocols genetically modified foods and organisms need to go through that most of the public are unaware of.

Genetically modified organisms can provide the environment with a ton of beneficial factors. Genetically engineered crops allow farmers to use less pesticides saving their precious crops. Less chemicals used on crops the better. “On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%,” taken from from the article A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. This is a substantial benefit that GM crops provide.

A common fallacy associated with GMOs is that they have less nutrients than the normal food. This viewpoint argues that GMOs create larger foods resulting in less vitamins and minerals. However, genetically modified organisms have not been proven to have less nutrients. Instead, specific foods are designed to contain extra nutrients. According to research done by Kennedy, “a modified form of  African corn contains 169 times more beta-carotene than traditional crops”. Along with this benefit, the African corn has six times the amount of Vitamin C than staple foods. This example shows how much of an impact GMOs have on nutrition. Inserting more nutrients into foods may allow for people suffering from hunger to get more vitamins and minerals with a smaller portion. These nutritional benefits may help people suffering from deficiencies around the world. Adding these extra nutrients can allow crops in underdeveloped countries to provide the essential qualities they may not get from the foods they grow nearby.

GM crops undergo tons of tests and provide a substantial amount of benefit to our environment. The public as a whole may not even understand the true power genetically modified organisms can provide. Society does not want to take any risks with GMOs because they do not know the long lasting affects they might have. This is another huge disadvantage that modified crops provide. However, its benefits outweighs the disadvantages. Plus, these disadvantages are not proven to be hurting us or our environment. It’s hard to believe that we have had molecular genetically engineered crops for so long and it has not caused a true problem. These companies providing GM foods and crops are going to be the future of foods. Eventually, the world will overpopulate leading to more of a food drought leading to deaths of lots of our livestock and will cause a trickle down affect in our society. It may be a high risk to start turning completely over to the genetic engineers rather than our staple “non GMO” foods, but every food has been modified in some sort of way. If everything the government had companies labeling absolutely everything that has been genetically modified in past, then we would be seeing everything in stores labeled as, “GM foods.” It may seem unreal for most of the public to look at it in this sort of way, but it needs to be done, so society can move closer towards saving the world and economy. We have taken risks before to better our survival fitness than what is the difference? The true difference is that we have evolved as a society and humans began to develop controversy over different things rather than look at the bigger picture. The world is beginning to change and everyone as a whole society needs to evolve and change with it.

GMOs are a cost efficient way to reduce the use of pesticides, and can potentially end world hunger. This is a huge benefit to society, and can change the world. Using GMOs would allow for less expensive labor in production and pesticide dispersion. Not only do these modifications cost less money, but they also provide food for people in need. Genetically modified organisms open a ton of doors into the future, which can better food production as a whole. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, use less pesticides, and have the possibility of helping to provide food for the world.

References

Blancke, S. (2015, August 18). Why people oppose gmos even though science says they are safe. Scientific American. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-people-oppose-gmos-even-though-science-says-they-are-safe/

Five good reasons to support gmos. Inside Battelle. (2021, October 21). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://inside.battelle.org/blog-details/five-good-reasons-to-support-gmos?keyword_session_id=vt~adwords%7Ckt~%7Cmt~%7Cta~496274902983&_vsrefdom=wordstream&gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzrdyN2I-4OClwQryUYRgIkQ_o2Me4MpiniT9FsA4AfL8FdLCdSdNDEaApC3EALw_wcB

Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (n.d.). A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLOS ONE. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629

Viewpoint: GMO crops are key to sustainable farming-why are some scientists afraid to talk about them? Genetic Literacy Project. (2019, January 24). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/01/21/viewpoint-gmo-crops-are-key-to-sustainable-farming-why-are-some-scientists-afraid-to-talk-about-them/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzqNpBP52pa93XYPG1E3w70zgggtT5vam2dGJRVz09XiMDYt9HtWHRMaAqpfEALw_wcB

Faccio, E., & Guiotto Nai Fovino, L. (2019, October 19). Food neophobia or distrust of novelties? exploring consumers’ attitudes toward gmos, insects and cultured meat. MDPI. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440.

Hakim, M. P., Zanetta, L. D. A., Oliveira, J. M. de, & Cunha, D. T. da. (2020, February 1). The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception. Food Research International. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788.

Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

A.D.A.M. “Genetically Engineered Foods.” MedlinePlus (2021).

UDRISTE, Anca Amalia, and Liliana BADULESCU. “Genetically modified organisms.” Research Journal of Agricultural Science 49.4 (2017).

Borie, Colin, Hugo Hello, and Thomas Theis Nielsen. “Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.”

Jamil, Kaiser. “Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?” United Nations, United Nations, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger

M. Kennedy. “Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO Foods.” Insider Health (2020). 

Stephenson, Gerald R., et al. “Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006).” Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.11 (2006).

Casual Rewrite Argument

The Ultimate Goal

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have the ability to change the world. A more in depth definition used in the scientific field can be described as, “organisms whose genetic material has been modified in a way that doesn’t occur in nature under natural conditions of cross-breeding or natural recombination,” according to the article, Genetically Modified Organisms. GMOs have gained a bad reputation towards the majority of the public, when they can provide positive results. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, require less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger. These factors are beneficial to the public in more ways that they could be harmful. GMOs are proven to be non-harmful, illustrating another reason why genetically engineered foods can provide essential changes for the world.

One reason GMOs are beneficial to food production is because they are cost efficient.  According to the National Academy of Science, the World Health Organization, and many other major worldwide science organizations, genetically modified organisms have no evidence that they can be harmful to humans, stated by MedlinePlus. Genetic engineering provides a more cost efficient way to provide food for the public. Starting by having a longer shelf life. This is beneficial because consumers will not have to worry about their food going bad. This shows that consumers will not need to buy more food, or spend more money. “Farmers will lower herbicides used,” Borie Theis Nielsen said in the article Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.  This could save money for the economy allowing money to be used in more needed areas. The preservation of food would cause a trickle down effect. If grocery stores make less shipments, they would not have to pay for as many shipments. Drivers would make less trips leading to saving more money. There would not be as much gas used or paid for leading to less usage of fossil fuels. Not only would the economy be saving money, but they would also be saving limited resources. Using this scientific advancement, GMOs can save money without any unwanted consequences. 

Along with being cost efficient, GMOs do not require the use of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that are used on foods to prevent insects, fungi, and weeds from destroying crops, (Stephenson, 2006).  Although this seems like a good idea, it truly is the opposite. Pesticides are toxic to humans and the environment. Side effects may include cancer and damage the human’s reproductive immune and nervous systems. Ingesting these toxins at high amounts can be lethal. Pesticides can ultimately pollute the environment by contaminating the soil, water, and even the air. Too many pesticides can harm humans, wildlife, and neighboring lands. There are older pesticides that have been banned around the world. However, these remains linger in the soils and water for many years. Instead of using pesticides to increase yields, scientists can use GMOs to safely protect crops for these pests. Developing countries are already experiencing deaths from pesticides. They are one of the leading causes of death. If counties continue to use pesticides they have the ability to end the human race. 

Solving world hunger may seem like an unattainable goal, but GMOs have the potential to end this catastrophe. People that suffer from hunger also face malnutrition. Malnutrition directly correlates with Vitamin-A deficiency. Currently, there are 140 million children that are deficient in Vitamin-A. A portion of these children become blind and die within 12 months of losing their sight, stated by Jamil Kaiser. In order to solve this problem, scientists have begun using biotechnology to create Genetically Modified rice. Also known as Golden Rice. These biotechnicians have inserted 3 new genes into rice that help it produce pro Vitamin-A. Kaiser believes that golden rice has the potential to save many lives including these children.

A common fallacy associated with GMOs is that they have less nutrients than the normal food. This viewpoint argues that GMOs create larger foods resulting in less vitamins and minerals. However, genetically modified organisms have not been proven to have less nutrients. Instead, specific foods are designed to contain extra nutrients. According to research done by Kennedy, “a modified form of  African corn contains 169 times more beta-carotene than traditional crops”. Along with this benefit, the African corn has 6 times the amount of Vitamin C than staple foods. This example shows how much of an impact GMOs have on nutrition. Inserting more nutrients into foods may allow for people suffering from hunger to get more vitamins and minerals with a smaller portion. These nutritional benefits may help people suffering from deficiencies around the world. Adding these extra nutrients can allow crops in underdeveloped countries to provide the essential qualities they may not get from the foods they grow nearby. 

GMOs are a cost efficient way to reduce the use of pesticides, and can potentially end world hunger. This is a huge benefit to society, and can change the world. Using GMOs would allow for less expensive labor in production and pesticide dispersion. Not only do these modifications cost less money, but they also provide food for people in need. Genetically modified organisms open a ton of doors into the future, which can better food production as a whole. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, use less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger.

References

A.D.A.M. “Genetically Engineered Foods.” MedlinePlus (2021).

UDRISTE, Anca Amalia, and Liliana BADULESCU. “Genetically modified organisms.” Research Journal of Agricultural Science 49.4 (2017).

Borie, Colin, Hugo Hello, and Thomas Theis Nielsen. “Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.”

Jamil, Kaiser. “Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?” United Nations, United Nations, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger

M. Kennedy. “Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO Foods.” Insider Health (2020). 

Stephenson, Gerald R., et al. “Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006).” Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.11 (2006).

Casual Argument

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have the ability to change the world. A more in depth definition used in the scientific field can be described as, “organisms whose genetic material has been modified in a way that doesn’t occur in nature under natural conditions of cross-breeding or natural recombination,” according to the article, Genetically Modified Organisms. GMOs have gained a bad reputation towards the majority of the public, when they can provide positive results. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, require less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger. These factors are beneficial to the public in more ways that they could be harmful. GMOs are proven to be non-harmful, illustrating another reason why genetically engineered foods can provide essential changes for the world.

One reason GMOs are beneficial to food production is because they are cost efficient.  According to the National Academy of Science, the World Health Organization, and many other major worldwide science organizations, genetically modified organisms have no evidence that they can be harmful to humans, stated by MedlinePlus. Genetic engineering provides a more cost efficient way to provide food for the public. Starting by having a longer shelf life. This is beneficial because consumers will not have to worry about their food going bad. This shows that consumers will not need to buy more food, or spend more money. “Farmers will lower herbicides used,” Borie Theis Nielsen said in the article Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.  This could save money for the economy allowing money to be used in more needed areas. The preservation of food would cause a trickle down effect. If grocery stores make less shipments, they would not have to pay for as many shipments. Drivers would make less trips leading to saving more money. There would not be as much gas used or paid for leading to less usage of fossil fuels. Not only would the economy be saving money, but they would also be saving limited resources. Using this scientific advancement, GMOs can save money without any unwanted consequences. 

Along with being cost efficient, GMOs do not require the use of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that are used on foods to prevent insects, fungi, and weeds from destroying crops, (Stephenson, 2006).  Although this seems like a good idea, it truly is the opposite. Pesticides are toxic to humans and the environment. Side effects may include cancer and damage the human’s reproductive immune and nervous systems. Ingesting these toxins at high amounts can be lethal. Pesticides can ultimately pollute the environment by contaminating the soil, water, and even the air. Too many pesticides can harm humans, wildlife, and neighboring lands. There are older pesticides that have been banned around the world. However, these remains linger in the soils and water for many years. Instead of using pesticides to increase yields, scientists can use GMOs to safely protect crops for these pests. Developing countries are already experiencing deaths from pesticides. They are one of the leading causes of death. If counties continue to use pesticides they have the ability to end the human race. 

Solving world hunger may seem like an unattainable goal, but GMOs have the potential to end this catastrophe. People that suffer from hunger also face malnutrition. Malnutrition directly correlates with Vitamin-A deficiency. Currently, there are 140 million children that are deficient in Vitamin-A. A portion of these children become blind and die within 12 months of losing their sight, stated by Jamil Kaiser. In order to solve this problem, scientists have begun using biotechnology to create Genetically Modified rice. Also known as Golden Rice. These biotechnicians have inserted 3 new genes into rice that help it produce pro Vitamin-A. Kaiser believes that golden rice has the potential to save many lives including these children.

A common fallacy associated with GMOs is that they have less nutrients than the normal food. This viewpoint argues that GMOs create larger foods resulting in less vitamins and minerals. However, genetically modified organisms have not been proven to have less nutrients. Instead, specific foods are designed to contain extra nutrients. According to research done by Kennedy, “a modified form of  African corn contains 169 times more beta-carotene than traditional crops”. Along with this benefit, the African corn has 6 times the amount of Vitamin C than staple foods. This example shows how much of an impact GMOs have on nutrition. Inserting more nutrients into foods may allow for people suffering from hunger to get more vitamins and minerals with a smaller portion. These nutritional benefits may help people suffering from deficiencies around the world. Adding these extra nutrients can allow crops in underdeveloped countries to provide the essential qualities they may not get from the foods they grow nearby. 

GMOs are a cost efficient way to reduce the use of pesticides, and can potentially end world hunger. This is a huge benefit to society, and can change the world. Using GMOs would allow for less expensive labor in production and pesticide dispersion. Not only do these modifications cost less money, but they also provide food for people in need. Genetically modified organisms open a ton of doors into the future, which can better food production as a whole. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, use less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger.

References

A.D.A.M. “Genetically Engineered Foods.” MedlinePlus (2021).

UDRISTE, Anca Amalia, and Liliana BADULESCU. “Genetically modified organisms.” Research Journal of Agricultural Science 49.4 (2017).

Borie, Colin, Hugo Hello, and Thomas Theis Nielsen. “Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.”

Jamil, Kaiser. “Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?” United Nations, United Nations, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger

M. Kennedy. “Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO Foods.” Insider Health (2020). 

Stephenson, Gerald R., et al. “Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006).” Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.11 (2006).

Definition Rewrite

Food is Food

All living things need food for survival. Food is an essential part of humans lives, and will continue to be forever. Whether it’s a Snickers candy bar or just an apple, every food has nutrients that will help living things grow and evolve. Food on its own, has evolved from the very beginning. A Granny Smith apple that we all know and love has not been the same size and shape from the beginning of time. Humans have genetically manipulated each and every food with out most of the public knowing. This also plays a part in humans evolving. For example, in 3000 B.C. the average height of a man was 5’3 and women were 5′ according to Jared Diamond’s The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Now, worldwide men on average are 5’8-5’9 feet tall while women are 5’3-5’4 feet tall. Nowadays, humans and many other living things are going to need bigger potions of food, and more nutrients to survive. Meaning foods thousands of years ago would not be enough for humans to survive in 2021. Since this is the case why does the public overall, look down upon genetically engineering foods? Most of the public are so used to seeing the same foods over and over again that they get accustomed to these foods, thinking that’s how every food should look. Then once this certain food has a deformity or is just different from what they are accustomed to, they will not eat it. This can be defined as food neophobia, aversion to new foods. As people age they are likely to stop trying new foods and just have the food they were exposed to when they were younger. “As children age, they tend to be less willing to accept new foods,” Elena Faccio states in Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes toward GMOs, Insects and Cultured Meat. If we would have any chance in switching to genetically modified foods, we would need to start giving these foods to younger children. This just shows that people will not even give genetically modified foods a chance because it’s different from what they are accustomed to. Neophobia “seems to be a negative predictor of willingness to taste non-traditional ethnic foods,”Faccio states. Food that is genetically modified, does not taste or even look any different from everyday foods. If anything scientists could construct any food and make it tastier or a more appealing shape if they really wanted to, but they are not looking to change the taste or look of staple foods because they do not want it to look any different. If genetically engineered foods were completely different from what the public are used to then genetic engineers will have no chance in the public changing to their product.

All foods have been “genetically” modified in any way, shape, or form since the beginning of time. Either most humans have neglected to notice this, or they simply do not know unless a food is labeled “GMO.” In The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception, it states that Brazil is the second biggest producer of GM foods worldwide. Brazil mostly genetically modifies contents in staple foods like soy and maize. In 2003, Brazil passed a regulation stating that “both packaged and bulk products in natura that contain or are produced using GMO above the limit of 1% should be labeled and the consumer should be informed about the gene donor species at the place reserved for ingredient identification.” Meaning the public needs to be notified about what scientists genetically changed to their food. Since every food is “genetically modified” than every food should be labeled accordingly. This will never happen, but it is definitely necessary. However, according to Mariana Piton Hakim, “in 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Showing that this country relies heavily on genetically modified foods. For the most part it seems to be working. Brazil has already adapted and are ready for the future. If any problems arise they will already be able to solve them and move on.

Genetically modified foods has a negative connotation from the public. If it isn’t because they are scared to try different foods, then it is most likely that they are scared to take risks. Everything has a risk that humans will not know the consequence until later in life, and then we adapt and evolve from those mistakes. Genetically modifying foods are yet to show any signs of risks, so as a human race we need to start moving in a their direction. If we start using them soon worldwide, we will find the problems and diagnose them earlier than later. Genetically modified foods are food that have their DNA manipulated in some way to benefit whatever the scientists are looking for. For example most genetically modified foods/crops have their genetic material modified, so they are pesticide resistant. Most of the public do not know enough about genetically engineered crops/foods because they are neglecting them due to their own beliefs. Genetically modified foods are being looked down upon by the public even though the public knows little to nothing about them. Most do not realize that we are going to have to go in the direction of genetically modified foods for survive in the near future. Humans are eventually going to overpopulate and will not have enough food for survival, but genetically modifying foods will definitely aid in saving the human race. Not to mention they can help the environment and cause less plants to die due to pesticides.

The bottom line is food food. Whether the food is genetically modified or not, humans need to adapt to the new culture for survival. Every food has been modified for our survival with or without us knowing. Everywhere across the world have their own problems. Third world countries have food shortages due to either overpopulation, or less animals than humans. Genetically engineered foods/crops could change their life and culture by not needing the use of these animals, and rely strictly on genetically modified foods. The public needs to change their ways soon so generations after us can already be into an adapted culture.

References

Faccio, E., & Guiotto Nai Fovino, L. (2019, October 19). Food neophobia or distrust of novelties? exploring consumers’ attitudes toward gmos, insects and cultured meat. MDPI. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440.

Hakim, M. P., Zanetta, L. D. A., Oliveira, J. M. de, & Cunha, D. T. da. (2020, February 1). The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception. Food Research International. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788.

Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

Defintion

All living things need food for survival. Food is an essential part of humans lives, and will continue to be forever. Whether it’s a Snickers candy bar or just an apple, every food has nutrients that will help living things grow and evolve. Food on its own, has evolved from the very beginning. A Granny Smith apple that we all know and love has not been the same size and shape from the beginning of time. Humans have genetically manipulated each and every food with out most of the public knowing. This also plays a part in humans evolving. For example, in 3000 B.C. the average height of a man was 5’3 and women were 5′ according to Jared Diamond’s The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Now, worldwide men on average are 5’8-5’9 feet tall while women are 5’3-5’4 feet tall. Nowadays, humans and many other living things are going to need bigger potions of food, and more nutrients to survive. Meaning foods thousands of years ago would not be enough for humans to survive in 2021. Since this is the case why does the public overall, look down upon genetically engineering foods? Most of the public are so used to seeing the same foods over and over again that they get accustomed to these foods, thinking that’s how every food should look. Then once this certain food has a deformity or is just different from what they are accustomed to, they will not eat it. This can be defined as food neophobia, aversion to new foods. As people age they are likely to stop trying new foods and just have the food they were exposed to when they were younger. “As children age, they tend to be less willing to accept new foods,” Elena Faccio states in Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes toward GMOs, Insects and Cultured Meat. If we would have any chance in switching to genetically modified foods, we would need to start giving these foods to younger children. This just shows that people will not even give genetically modified foods a chance because it’s different from what they are accustomed to. Neophobia “seems to be a negative predictor of willingness to taste non-traditional ethnic foods,”Faccio states. Food that is genetically modified, does not taste or even look any different from everyday foods. If anything scientists could construct any food and make it tastier or a more appealing shape if they really wanted to, but they are not looking to change the taste or look of staple foods because they do not want it to look any different. If genetically engineered foods were completely different from what the public are used to then genetic engineers will have no chance in the public changing to their product.

All foods have been “genetically” modified in any way, shape, or form since the beginning of time. Either most humans have neglected to notice this, or they simply do not know unless a food is labeled “GMO.” In The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception, it states that Brazil is the second biggest producer of GM foods worldwide. Brazil mostly genetically modifies contents in staple foods like soy and maize. In 2003, Brazil passed a regulation stating that “both packaged and bulk products in natura that contain or are produced using GMO above the limit of 1% should be labeled and the consumer should be informed about the gene donor species at the place reserved for ingredient identification.” Meaning the public needs to be notified about what scientists genetically changed to their food. Since every food is “genetically modified” than every food should be labeled accordingly. This will never happen, but it is definitely necessary. However, according to Mariana Piton Hakim, “in 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Showing that this country relies heavily on genetically modified foods. For the most part it seems to be working. Brazil has already adapted and are ready for the future. If any problems arise they will already be able to solve them and move on.

Genetically modified foods has a negative connotation from the public. If it isn’t because they are scared to try different foods, then it is most likely that they are scared to take risks. Everything has a risk that humans will not know the consequence until later in life, and then we adapt and evolve from those mistakes. Genetically modifying foods are yet to show any signs of risks, so as a human race we need to start moving in a their direction. If we start using them soon worldwide, we will find the problems and diagnose them earlier than later. Genetically modified foods are food that have their DNA manipulated in some way to benefit whatever the scientists are looking for. For example most genetically modified foods/crops have their genetic material modified, so they are pesticide resistant. Most of the public do not know enough about genetically engineered crops/foods because they are neglecting them due to their own beliefs. Genetically modified foods are being looked down upon by the public even though the public knows little to nothing about them. Most do not realize that we are going to have to go in the direction of genetically modified foods for survive in the near future. Humans are eventually going to overpopulate and will not have enough food for survival, but genetically modifying foods will definitely aid in saving the human race. Not to mention they can help the environment and cause less plants to die due to pesticides.

The bottom line is food food. Whether the food is genetically modified or not, humans need to adapt to the new culture for survival. Every food has been modified for our survival with or without us knowing. Everywhere across the world have their own problems. Third world countries have food shortages due to either overpopulation, or less animals than humans. Genetically engineered foods/crops could change their life and culture by not needing the use of these animals, and rely strictly on genetically modified foods. The public needs to change their ways soon so generations after us can already be into an adapted culture.

References

Faccio, E., & Guiotto Nai Fovino, L. (2019, October 19). Food neophobia or distrust of novelties? exploring consumers’ attitudes toward gmos, insects and cultured meat. MDPI. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440.

Hakim, M. P., Zanetta, L. D. A., Oliveira, J. M. de, & Cunha, D. T. da. (2020, February 1). The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception. Food Research International. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788.

Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

Self Reflective Statement

Core Value I: Understand that writing is a practice that involves a multi-stage, recursive, and social process. (In particular, students should address how they have engaged in self-directed revision.)

I engaged in revising my own piece by reading my work over and over again until I was completely satisfied with my work. Each of my arguments have taken multiple attempts, but I know that it was possible to improve. Professor Hodges had multiple activities during class to point every student in the right direction. Self revision might be the hardest part about writing, but I feel like if you put yourself in a courtroom arguing in front of a judge trying to prove your position, it makes it a lot easier.

Core Value II. Understand that close and critical reading/analysis allows writers to understand how and why texts create meaning.

Reading and doing your research increases your persuasiveness, and I feel like if you know what you are talking about, and can back it up with evidence it will make you become a great writer. I know while doing this research essay that it helped a ton to do my research and really nail down my point. Research is the backbone of your essay while the meat is putting together the facts and trying to portray your point.

Core Value III. Understand that writing is shaped by audience, purpose, and context.

Your audience is one of the biggest parts of writing. If you are preaching to the wrong crowd there’s little to no purpose into trying to prove your point. Your purpose is also a big point to your writing by communicating your opinions, perspective, and facts. Context is also a vital part of your writing because it provides perspective.

Core Value IV. Understand the role of information literacy in the practice of writing.

Using evidence will support your topic and help the audience understand your point.

Core Value V. Understand the ethical dimensions of writing.

Based on current journalism there is no ethical boundaries in writing. However, the primary component in ethical writing is crediting authors for their ideas. This is done through proper citation.

Annotated Bibliography

Source 1: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440/htm – Food Neophobia or Distrust of Novelties? Exploring Consumers’ Attitude Toward GMOs, Insects, and Cultured Meat by Elena Faccio and Lucrezia Guiotto Nai Fovino

Food Neophobia may have a correlation to the use of GM foods among the public. Food Neophobia is another way of saying the aversion of foreign foods. According to Rozin, children are going to choose foods that are more familiar to them while, rejecting foods that may be dangerous. As humans grow older, they tend to be more accepting of different foods. However, Neophobia is still present in adults in fact, Elena Faccio states adults are “influenced by different socio-demographic variables: urbanization is negatively correlated with neophobia, as is income and schooling.” This relates to GM foods by them being characterized as “distrustful” showing that many people may look away from even trying Genetically Modified foods.

Source 2: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788 – The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception by Mariana Piton Hakim,Luis D’Avoglio Zanetta, Julicristie Machadode Oliveira, and Diogo Thimoteoda Cunha

The United States have more of a negative outlook on GM foods when most of the public does not even know the true beneficial health that GM foods can provide. Brazil produces one of the most GM foods worldwide. The article states, “In 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Brazil needed to make a regulation where anything genetically modified above 1% would need to be labled. While in the US it is mandatory to label anything genetically modified at all. Which arises my question that shouldn’t everything be labeled as genetically modified then? The evolution of our staple foods have not been the complete same since the start of time, and most of these foods have been genetically modified in some way to survive and evolve with the way humans are living. Putting a label saying that a food is genetically modified turns the public away from trying the product when most of their staple foods are “genetically modified.” If mostly all food are considered genetically modified than why is it that most of the US public turn away from the foods that are actually labeled?

Source 3: https://www.nature.com/articles/497024a – Case studies: A hard look at GM crops by Natasha Gilbert

GM crops can environmentally benefit the public in different ways. For example Natasha Gilbert states, “herbicide-resistant GM crops are less damaging to the environment than conventional crops grown at industrial scale.” GM crops are the source of these foods and can help the public take a step in the right direction if they would do research about GMOs. Gilbert claims that “the introduction of herbicide-tolerant cotton saved 15.5 million kilograms of herbicide between 1996 and 2011.” Showing that these GM crops are helping the environment by not spraying as much herbicide into the environment.

Source 4: Why people oppose gmos even though science says they are safe. Scientific American. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-people-oppose-gmos-even-though-science-says-they-are-safe/

This source supported my claim and helped me prove my point. This article shows how GMOs are useful while stating why people are against them.

Source 5: Five good reasons to support gmos. Inside Battelle. (2021, October 21). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://inside.battelle.org/blog-details/five-good-reasons-to-support-gmos?keyword_session_id=vt~adwords%7Ckt~%7Cmt~%7Cta~496274902983&_vsrefdom=wordstream&gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzrdyN2I-4OClwQryUYRgIkQ_o2Me4MpiniT9FsA4AfL8FdLCdSdNDEaApC3EALw_wcB

This article provided evidence from several different articles on how GMOs are useful. They only gave 5 reasons why but had supporting evidence on how GMOs were useful.

Source 6: Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (n.d.). A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLOS ONE. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629

This article did not provide much information it really only consisted on a study done in Germany on GMO crops.

Source 7: Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

This article provided information on the earlier days of the US and did not provide much information in my essay.

Visual Rhetoric

In the opening scene, the camera follows the silhouette of a child down a dark hallway. The frame is cut so you can only see the half of the child’s back and up to his/her head. There is no lights on in this hallway, but on light is illuminating from a different room where presumably the child is heading towards.

The next scene is a birds eye view of a different child laying stomach down on the ground, kicking her feet, and playing with her toys. The director is showing this scene to portray that kids are going to do what they feel is fun. The mood completely shifts to a juvenile mood where the suns out shining on the little girls body. This is appealing to the audience’s logic by showing that this little girl means no harm and she is just going to do whatever makes her happy. The director has yet to show a parent up to this point supervising these children.

The next scene cuts to a living room like area, with the sun shinning through the closed blinds. Right in the middle of the screen is a big cabinet opened with a stool in front of it. On top of the stool is a child standing on his/her tip toes trying to reach for whatever is on top if the cabinet. The picture only shows the child’s legs and her/his feet barely balancing on the stool. This appeals to the audience’s pathos by being on the edge of our seat waiting to see if the stool will tip and fall over. It makes the audience anxious by not knowing what is going to happen to this child and where his/her parents are.

The next scene consists of the same little girl jumping off of her bed and crouching down to talk with her friend/brother who also is a child. Once again showing that children do not see consequences with no adults around.

The next scene is a little boy on top of a stool what looks like to be in his garage or shed. He has a flashlight pointed on top of the body of tools that he is scrounging around to most likely find something to play with.

The next scene cuts back to the other child on the stool with toys and large items falling down to the ground beside her/him. Which leads to the next scene in which the little girl crawls under her bed with her friend most likely trying to do something for their own entertainment.

Next we cut back to the boy that was in the shed and he is in the bathroom with a rolled up towel, but as an audience we are unsure what that item inside the towel is.

This brings us where the child that was on top of the stool earlier is now looking through the belongings of what she had threw on the ground finding a gun in the mist of all that. That also brings us back to the little kids under the bed bringing out a shotgun while they are playing with all the toys around it unaware of how dangerous this deadly weapon is.

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Rebuttal Argument Rewrite – krackintheneck


GMO Common Fallacies

GMOs were mainly created to fight disease, resist pests, improve health, provide an easier way to produce crops, and finally give humans animals and crops the nutrients needed for survival. The public have been fighting whether or not molecular genetically modified organisms are safe for the public to consume. Most of the public does not know the true benefits genetically modified organisms have on the environment and the whole world. However, the biggest downside to genetically modified foods and organisms is the unknowingness of their side affects. They have yet to be truly diagnosed to be a negative thing. Most of the public think genetically modified foods can be detrimental to their health, and cause major pollution. Genetically modified foods are not perfect, but they would not be even considered if it caused humans or crops to die. According to Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe, author  Stefaan Blancke states that genetically engineered foods are safe to eat and benefit the environment. Genetically modified organisms go through a 7-10 year testing period where they are checked for risks against humans, livestock, wildlife, and the environment stated by the Battelle staff in Five Good Reasons to Support GMOs. Scientists observe any new proteins created by the GMOs that could allergic reactions. Battelle states that “GM food production are among the most tested products in history.” Genetically modified organisms are kept under a microscope until they are completely ready to be released to the public. There are lots of protocols genetically modified foods and organisms need to go through that most of the public are unaware of.

Genetically modified organisms can provide the environment with a ton of beneficial factors. Genetically engineered crops allow farmers to use less pesticides saving their precious crops. Less chemicals used on crops the better. “On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%,” taken from from the article A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. This is a substantial benefit that GM crops provide.

GM crops undergo tons of tests and provide a substantial amount of benefit to our environment. The public as a whole may not even understand the true power genetically modified organisms can provide. Society does not want to take any risks with GMOs because they do not know the long lasting affects they might have. This is another huge disadvantage that modified crops provide. However, its benefits outweighs the disadvantages. Plus, these disadvantages are not proven to be hurting us or our environment. It’s hard to believe that we have had molecular genetically engineered crops for so long and it has not caused a true problem. These companies providing GM foods and crops are going to be the future of foods. Eventually, the world will overpopulate leading to more of a food drought leading to deaths of lots of our livestock and will cause a trickle down affect in our society. It may be a high risk to start turning completely over to the genetic engineers rather than our staple “non GMO” foods, but every food has been modified in some sort of way. If everything the government had companies labeling absolutely everything that has been genetically modified in past, then we would be seeing everything in stores labeled as, “GM foods.” It may seem unreal for most of the public to look at it in this sort of way, but it needs to be done, so society can move closer towards saving the world and economy. We have taken risks before to better our survival fitness than what is the difference? The true difference is that we have evolved as a society and humans began to develop controversy over different things rather than look at the bigger picture. The world is beginning to change and everyone as a whole society needs to evolve and change with it.

References

Blancke, S. (2015, August 18). Why people oppose gmos even though science says they are safe. Scientific American. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-people-oppose-gmos-even-though-science-says-they-are-safe/

Five good reasons to support gmos. Inside Battelle. (2021, October 21). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://inside.battelle.org/blog-details/five-good-reasons-to-support-gmos?keyword_session_id=vt~adwords%7Ckt~%7Cmt~%7Cta~496274902983&_vsrefdom=wordstream&gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzrdyN2I-4OClwQryUYRgIkQ_o2Me4MpiniT9FsA4AfL8FdLCdSdNDEaApC3EALw_wcB

Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (n.d.). A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLOS ONE. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629

Viewpoint: GMO crops are key to sustainable farming-why are some scientists afraid to talk about them? Genetic Literacy Project. (2019, January 24). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/01/21/viewpoint-gmo-crops-are-key-to-sustainable-farming-why-are-some-scientists-afraid-to-talk-about-them/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzqNpBP52pa93XYPG1E3w70zgggtT5vam2dGJRVz09XiMDYt9HtWHRMaAqpfEALw_wcB

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