White Paper – rowanluver29

Hypothesis Proposal 1:

For my research essay, one topic I will be exploring is whether or not SAT’s matter beyond the classroom setting. To be more specific, whether or not education based on standardized tests does/ does not prepare anyone for life after school except professional test-takers. SATs are simply a way to test a child’s knowledge and education on a test in which they can not truly study for. Sure, there are SAT prep courses that one must pay $300+ for in order to get a proper study tool, but does that really benefit the students when they have no idea what information the test is going to present?

A lot of the ideas and expectations that surround the SAT are that it measures one’s intelligence, and this score tells them which path they can take to further their future careers. But what people fail to take into consideration is how each student perceives as well as takes the test. Each student is different, whether this has to do with home life, culture, prior education, mental or learning disorders, anxiety, etc. The SAT does not cooperate with a child’s needs, yet children are expected to meet the SATs needs, wants, score expectations, and more.

Source one: How Does Standardized Testing Negatively Affect Students? – (collegeaftermath.com)

Background: This source shows the readers how SAT and other standardized tests do not show a student’s true potential. These standardized tests as well as society puts students in a box, which restricts them to show schools how they perform on tests rather than creatively and in real life scenarios. Some listed points made in the article include: (1) Standardized tests fail to prioritize the needs of every student (2) Stress and anxiety (3) low self-esteem, and more.

How I intend to use it: I intent to use this essay to my advantage because every point listed in the article is something that I can use to defend my hypothesis that standardized tests do not show anything for any student that is not planning to go into a career that is strictly about taking or creating tests.

Source two: How the ACT and SAT exams are built to fail students (thenextweb.com)

Background: This article discusses how most colleges are now dropping the mandatory ACT or SAT scores when applying to college. This is because they realized that these scores are mainly showing that most high school students are not ready to preform at a college level. They came to the conclusion that “moment-in-time evaluations are fraught with problems and don’t provide and accurate view of real knowledge or potential.” The article also touches on some test anxiety statistics and how that is an unfair disadvantage to the students.

How I Intend to use it: I am going to use this article to show that more recently, people high in college admissions and academics are starting to realize that a lot of these test scores are proving that it does not measure ones intelligence, because there is no way to prepare for the test. And it also shows that the SAT and ACT have a heavy negative impact on students test anxiety, causing them to do even worse on the provided test. I intend to mention some of the anxiety statistics they provided as well.

Source three: Are the SATs a Disadvantage to Minorities? | Applied Social Psychology (ASP) (psu.edu)

Background: This essay discusses how the SATs make it difficult for minorities or people of the lower class in general, to succeed. The article stated that nearly 2 million students spend 2.5 billion dollars on SAT preparation alone, each year. The price of the test as well as the test preparation puts minorities at a disadvantage. They also experience a stereotype threat, fearing they will confirm stereotypes that they will not do good on the tests. This gives them test anxiety, makes a lot of them not take the test at all, or blame their low score on something else. For example: A student may go out the night before the SAT instead of studying, and blame their low score on them being irresponsible so they aren’t embarrassed or confirming stereotypes that minorities are not as smart as other privileged races.

How I intend to use it: I will use this article to prove that the SAT’s are not meeting students needs in order for them to even have a chance to succeeding at the test or having the possibility to get into a university or college.

Source four: SATs do not benefit children’s learning and are bad for their well-being – NEU survey | NEU

Background: This essay is more of a survey, a lot of it stating that students are being mentally degraded by the SAT and how it is making students skip school, make themselves sick, and keep them up at night just because of the pressure the SAT puts on students. This article truly shows the toll the SAT can take on a student and how much it takes hold of their academic confidence and outlook on their academic future.

How I intend to use it: I will be using the survey numbers for statistics and the teachers quotes for evidence on how mentally degrading a standardized test can be to a student.

Source five: Lawsuit Claims SAT And ACT Are Biased—Here’s What Research Says (forbes.com)

Background: This is another essay that covers a lot on racial and economic disadvantages when it comes to the SAT. But it also covers how the SAT is also bias towards certain genders as well.

How I intend to use it:
I think incorporating how gender can differentiate test scores and how some parts of the test might be an advantage to one gender but a disadvantage or another should be taken into consideration when discussing the SAT and students. I also will use this article when discussing minorities like the source above, but with this article I can also focus on both race and economics as one topic or two separate topics.

Possible topic for smaller papers:

Definition/Classification argument: Minorities do/do not have a disadvantage to the SATs.

Cause/effect argument: Minorities do not have the money to buy the study tools they need or the test itself, making it hard for them to succeed in the SATs.

Rebuttal argument: I will show evidence that it is in fact true that minorities do have a severe disadvantage when it comes to trying to succeed in standardized testing.  

Current state of the research paper:

With this being my first hypothesis, I am confident in the hypothesis as well as the sources. I feel as though with just the first 5 sources I have a lot of information I can use to back up my side of the hypothesis. With my upcoming sources in the next white paper due date, I am going to try and incorporate other points of views so the essay is not all just one sided, I want it to be more argumentative. I am interested in this topic, but I feel it might be boring to write as well as read, which is why I have a second hypothesis, which you will find below.

Hypothesis Proposal 2:

For my research essay, I will be discussing how childhood trauma paved the way for a lot of widely known serial killers to begin their murder sprees. Researchers have noted that a lot of the most known serial killers came from childhood trauma, or an unstable home. FBI profiler Robert Ressler had interviewed 36 convicted murderers, in the interviews he conducted he found out about the murderers’ histories, motives, as well as their psychological and behavioral characteristics. He found that 40% of the murderers he interviewed were physically beaten or abused, while the other 70% had witnessed abuse growing up.

Psychopathic serial killers differ a lot from serial killers that came from specific traumas, psychopathic murderers have something different in their brain than other ‘normal’ human beings. Their brains have become an interest to neurologists, psychologists and criminologists. And although these types of murders stem mainly from a possible chemical imbalance, what sets them off is childhood trauma. Showing that some of the most notorious people to walk the Earth, became the way they are because they were not given enough care in the most vital years of their life.

Source one: Serial Killers And Childhood Abuse: Is There A Link? | Crime Traveller

Background: This article discusses how serial killers and childhood abuse correlate heavily with one another. In most cases, they go hand in hand. This article discusses different types of trauma, statistics with trauma and murders, and even some information about books written and how the authors got the information needed to write the books through interviews with murderers or heavy research.

How I intend to use it: I intend to use this article to back up my hypothesis and how that a lot of serial killers become serial killers because of their childhood trauma. Although this is not always the only reason or a reason at all, a lot of the time it is a factor that does heavily influence their actions.

Source two: The Mind of a Psychopath: The Psychopathic Killer | Crime Traveller

Background: This article goes more in depth about what a psychopath really is, characteristics of a psychopath and also some examples of well known murderers who are classified as psychopaths. It includes paragraphs about childhood abuse, genetics, brain scans, and a little bit about nature vs. nurture.

How I intend to use it:
I am going to use this article to help describe and go more in depth about the difference about psychopathic murderers and their childhood trauma vs regular murderers and their childhood trauma. This helps me prove my hypothesis, which states that almost all murderers have stemmed from childhood trauma, even if their actions also had to do with mental illness and genetics.

Source three: From Abused Child to Serial Killer: Investigating Nature vs Nurture in Methods of Murder – Psychiatry Advisor

Background: This article shows that not all abused children become serial killers, and not all serial killers are victims of childhood abuse. However, the connection between the two cannot be dismissed as just coincidence. It also decodes the criminal mind and gives little statistics.

How I intend to use it: I intend to use this article to describe how nature vs nurture can influence how a child grows up, even if they become a murderer or not. I obviously will use it more to help me explain how nature and nurture can influence a child to commit this horrible crime, but I will also show that not ALL children of abuse grow up to be murderers.

Source four: Manson, Wuornos, Ramirez: 3 Famous Killers with Exceptionally Screwed-Up Childhoods – A&E True Crime (aetv.com)

Background: This article points out 3 known murderers and each of their childhood traumas. It describes specifically how each one of them grew up and the abuse they endured at a young age.

How I intend to use it: I will use this source to show some real examples of serial killers and their sad pasts to again, prove my hypothesis. I also think it is also interesting to hear some real stories of murderers and their childhood rather than all statistics and articles talking about how they correlate and not showing real experiences.

Source five: The Dark Psychology of Serial Killers: Unpacking the Factors Behind their Brutal Behaviour | Psychreg

Background: This article touches on child abuse but also the other things that go hand in hand with child abuse that are other influences for murderers to do what they do. This can include something psychologically wrong with them like stated above, social and environmental factors, and also some health studies.

How I intend to use it: I will use this article to help break up all of the child abuse talk and also include some other factors that can enhance the PTSD from the child abuse, so I am steering off track just enough to talk about something else, but it still all ties back to abuse in the home.

Possible topic for smaller papers:

Definition/Classification argument: Discuss how psychopathic murderers and murderers that stem from childhood trauma are similar to one another, despite heavy differences

Cause/Effect argument: The cause would be genetics or child abuse; the effect would be how both of those things lead up to those people becoming serial killers. More specifically, how genetics and abuse go hand in hand to create a murderer.

Rebuttal: Statistics and research from the article proving that although psychopathic murders are different than murderers who just stem from childhood trauma, they all led up to the same point, and there is one similar underlying factor that got them there, and that is trauma.  

Current state of research paper:

I really like where I am with this hypothesis and this research paper compared to my first one. I am a lot more interested in this topic and I think it would be more interesting to read. I just need to get approval that this is a good hypothesis to use in a research paper! I think that this is a little bit less repetitive than my first hypothesis because there are different murderers I can look into specifically, I can also research more statistics because this also involves some information pertaining to the medical field. Overall, I think I like this hypothesis better than the first!

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White Paper-G00dSoup

Through the introduction of “Animal Crossing: New Horizons,” people have been able to get through a lack of social interaction and experience a sense of escapism from the outside world.


Background: Because humans are fundamentally social, extended intervals without social connection may be harmful to both mental and physical health. Many studies investigating how technology affects social isolation in older persons have indicated that using technology during times of social isolation reduces feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression. The nature of a potential association between gaming and emotions of loneliness and anxiety was examined using a survey model. The measurements used were a blend of survey questions that have undergone empirical validation and ones that were designed specifically for this study.

How I Intend To Use It: This article not only discusses the games ways of reducing the feeling of having a lack of social interaction, but also anxiety and depression, which can be possible outcomes of certain people who experienced a lack of social interaction. I want to use the outcomes of this study to compare the different people’s responses to the game and how it affected their mental state during the pandemic.


Background: With the risk of engaging in escapism, Animal Crossing: New Horizons offers players a dreamworld where they may momentarily escape the harsh realities. In contrast, the New Horizons environment develops into the ideal social platform for maintaining social engagement with people in order to combat loneliness. The article distinguishes whether the game is a “dreamland” or just a temporary form of escapism.

How I Intend To Use It: I intend on using this article to explain whether “Animal Crossing: New Horizons” is truly a “dreamland” or just a temporary form of escapism. I want to dive into whether or not this game does provide people the fill they needed during the pandemic, or if it did not satisfy them at all.


Background: This paper discusses Animal Crossing: New Horizons’ (ACNH) release during the COVID-19 pandemic. It draws upon responses from nearly 2000 players to frame how the game acts as a platform for routine substitution and social connectivity in a disconnected physical world. A combination of the game’s elements, including its comforting aesthetic, participatory community, financial mechanics, and goal-setting, promotes the player’s construction of their sense of self.

How I Intend To Use It: I want to dive deeper into each feature of the game and see what features helped users with their mental state. I feel there are far more features than just the social aspect of this game that can create a calming atmosphere for players to delve into.


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way many people live their lives. The increasing amount of time spent indoors and isolated has been accompanied by an increase in the time people spend playing video games. One such game which soared in popularity during the early stages of the pandemic was Animal Crossing: New Horizons. Findings suggest that playing the game helped satisfy various psychological needs.

How I Intend To Use It: I intend on using this article to dive deeper into this “psychological needs” and to find relation between these needs and social interaction. I want myself and my readers to understand each intricate aspect of the game and how it may satisfy feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression.


Background: Research suggests that playing video games contributes to positive emotions. Some of these benefits may be attributed to the stress-relieving abilities that video games have. In order for players to be able to shift their focus away from stress they are experiencing in their everyday, offline life, they need to immerse themselves in a fictional world.

How I Intend To Use It: I intend to use this article to examine many games and support my claim that Animal Crossing: New Horizons has nailed these stress-relieving advantages. Of course, not everybody has engaged in the game. However, I think that this game is superior in making up for the lack of social connection that occurred during the epidemic, and I want to make the case for why people should purchase this game if they experience these feelings.

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The White Paper- Miliwawa  


A non-dominant culture has a history of hardship; when the superior culture takes credit for its traditions, it results in cultural appropriation.

Fashion between Inspiration and Appropriation 

Background: Cultural appropriation in fashion has received attention in recent years from the media and the news. This paper aims to talk about the situation of cultural appropriation in the fashion field. It also looks into the historical perspective, in which many famous examples are examined to understand that the talk about cultural appropriation in fashion is not new and how it has increasingly developed over time. It also looks into the law perspective, in which different solutions and views are considered.

How I Intend to use it: This article has a good understanding of how fashion has started to use appropriation as a form to say fashion designers have been so-called inspired. I intend to talk about how being inspired and using a form of cultural appropriation are two completely different things and how fashion designers need to be more respectful and considerate of other people’s cultures and forms of art. 

Fashion and Appropriation

Background:  Fashion and Appropriation is a topic that is talked about many times and is very relevant in our society. Both producers and consumers of fashion have long shown a fascination with the difference between exotic fashion and cultural appropriation forms of fashion; in addition to promoting fashion change, these fashion moves have also encouraged various forms of Appropriation, making this topic very ongoing yet intensely a considerable debate. Appropriation can be a complex political and ethical discussion with many layers that require careful and critical thinking. The articles in this issue approach appropriation in fashion from different angles and perspectives.

How I intend to use it:  I intend to use this article to talk about the cultural appropriation that the fashion industry uses to come out with “exotic” fashion. Many Designers encourage different forms of appropriation, don’t consider the debate about cultural appropriation, and like to promote their opinions about the fashion industry and what cultural appropriation is or isn’t, which adds to the discussion and debate about the fashion industry and its consumers. 

Cultural Appropriation and Fashion: A-Line to Clarify the Line 

Background: This essay shows the difference between appreciation and appropriation. At the same time, explaining the history of cultural appropriation. Borrowing cultures has been happening for a long time, but sometimes that inspiration becomes stealing. For example, “an Australian fashion designer Kohon To Zai created a caribou skin parka for the runway… the problem with this was this particular parka was designed in 1920 to protect an Inuit shaman named Ava”(Holloway, 2011). This designer never asked for permission or gave reimbursement for the design. There are many instances where designers steal from subdominant cultures or individuals wear bold clothing without an appreciation of their religious/cultural background. 

How I intend to use it: I will use this paper because it shows how people wear cultural outfits without acknowledging the history behind it. This paper demonstrates many examples of when people have exploited fashion from subdominant cultures. This paper also explains how borrowing cultures can often be seen as inspiration rather than what it actually is, which is cultural appropriation.

Curbing cultural appropriation in the fashion industry with intellectual property

Background: In the discussion of the public debate following countless accusations of cultural appropriation, the fashion industry is due to undergo a vast transformation. The media is vocal about fashion designers learning to be mindful when borrowing from other cultures and offering products that are respectful of their traditions. At the same time, the fashion industry uses the term “cultural appropriation” as a role for intellectual property in curbing this harmful practice.

How I intend to use it: I intend to use this article because it speaks about the truth underlying intellectual property used in supporting cultural appropriation in the fashion industry today. The fashion industry has received many times, backlash, because it fails to respect different cultures and, in many cases, gives credit where it’s due. 

“They Love the Culture, but Not the People”: A Content Analysis of Cultural Appropriation Claims Against Fashion Designers and Brands From 2013 to 2020

Background: This research study explores instances of appropriation by FD&Bs, determines cultural inspiration in appropriated designs, and understands how acts of appropriation conduct institutions that harm communities. This study aims to determine how fashion designers and brands have been accused of cultural theft and how cultures are being used as sources of inspiration, and to also understand how acts of appropriation impact historical communities. Fashion Designers who do not conduct appropriate research of the original cultural context risk potentially continuing structures of dominance, marginalization, and power imbalances in today’s fashion society. 

How I intend to use it: This paper shows many instances where fashion designers and brands exploit cultural fashion and how it affects the roots of its culture. I will use this in my paper to show sources of influence in borrowed designs and be aware of how acts of appropriation uphold structures that affect historically oppressed groups.

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Hypothesis – Cleveland Brown 1203

Open carry will limit the number of violent crimes.

  1. https://www.aier.org/article/more-guns-less-crime/

It is trying to solve the problem will more guns equal more or less crime. It talks about the old gun’s laws back in 1900’s to the presents and compares the data from then to now.

  1. https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/more-guns-less-crime-understanding-crime-and-gun-control-laws-third

This talks about the gun control laws in the different states. Talks about the gun control and crime rates, are nine chapters in which the author presents evidence to support the argument that more access to guns and the use of concealed carry laws can reduce crime rates.

  1. https://www.hngn.com/articles/141814/20151020/harvard-gun-study-the-more-guns-the-less-criminal-activity.htm

Harvard has a study dedicated to guns and crime. They talk about the different areas of places and how that can affect a certain outcome for crime and gun violence.

  1. https://news.stanford.edu/2017/06/21/violent-crime-increases-right-carry-states/

This articles is actually against the gun hypothesis and says it will cause more crime.

  1. https://wusfnews.wusf.usf.edu/politics/2015-10-14/politifact-florida-is-violent-crime-lower-in-states-with-open-carry-laws

This talks about open carry and how open carry can lower crime because criminals are less likely to come after you.

Posted in ClevelandBrown, My Hypothesis | 1 Comment

White Paper – MellowTacos

Is Dog Ownership Associated with Mental Health? A Population Study of 68,362 Adults Living in England


In the article, Is Dog Ownership Associated with Mental Health, this association between owning a dog and our mental health remains a mystery, even after conducting a detailed survey studying this connection. This study’s main focus was on the basic association between humans mental health and owning a dog while the second focus was on the interactions between owning a dog and marital status all in relation to the idea of dog ownership and mental health. Self-reported information such as short term distress and mental illnesses were collected amongst a population of 68,362 adults, all residents of England. About 23 percent of these residents reported a dog living in the household. It was found that there was a lesser amount of mental illnesses reported amongst the dog owners in comparison to the non owners. According to many analyses, non married dog owners reported higher levels of short term psychological distress whereas married dog owners reported lower odds of long term mental illness. The findings of this experiment did not give us a final answer to the question, is dog ownership associated with mental health, but did indicate the idea that this question may be more complex than it was thought to be. Although, it did indicate that dog ownership based on marital status may have an impact on psychological health attributes. 

Pets and Happiness: Examining the Association between Pet Ownership and Wellbeing


In the article Pets and Happiness: Examining the Association between Pet Ownership and Wellbeing by Katherine Jacobs Bao and George Schreer, they discuss the question, Is there a connection between your happiness and your pet? Researchers have shown that there is a strong correlation between not only your physical but your mental health as well. The connection between your pet and your mental health has been shown to positively affect people with poor mental health. There has yet to be many studies proving that there’s a positive impact on those with good mental health. An online survey was conducted on Amazon Mechanical Turk where they found that those who have pets are more satisfied in life than those who do not. They broke the data down and found that dog owners scored higher showing that they have better overall wellbeing. When comparing different kinds of pet owners they looked at the Big Five personality traits. These traits consist of extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, specifically. They did not see a noticeable difference when looking at which animal you owned in this section. There may not be an abundance of differences between those you have pets and those who don’t, there are still proven benefits to owning a dog over anything else. 


In the article Health and Happiness: Dogs and Their Therapeutic Value by Gabrielle Marie McKeon she shares with us all the benefits that therapy dogs provide us with. Sigmon Freud, a credible psychotherapist, believed that dogs had the ability to sense tension. In 1944 the first therapy dog began to work. She worked for about 12 years. Therapy dogs work in many different places such as homes, schools, and hospitals. Liz Cleaves, owner and operator of Auntie Dog Training Studio, says she feels that training these dogs gives her “ a deeper and better relationship”(McKeon, 9). When testing a dog’s ability to see if they meet the requirements of becoming a service dog most are good at all the requirements except for not eating food. These dogs can range from all different types of sizes and breeds. A member from a TDI Certified Therapy Team said that one of the dogs was able to connect to a patient who was very self abusive and got her to stop hitting herself. Kathryn Kircher and her dog who is TDI certified stopped by a hospital and visited an older gentleman who was not commutative and depressed for a week. That man’s daughter thanked Kircher for bringing her dog to visit because they connected so much it made him “alert and upbeat”(McKeon, 28). Dr. Stuart Markowitz, the president of Hartford hospital says that ‘“the companionship that animals bring is vital to all of us

Dogs and human health/mental health: from the pleasure of their company to the benefits of their assistance 

In the article Dogs and human health/mental health: from the pleasure of their company to the benefits of their assistance by Jan Shubert she discusses major key benefits dogs give us with their company. Using dogs for their therapeutic gift has been around for a long time. The first documented therapeutic use of dogs was used in the 9th century in belgium. Service dogs and therapy dogs are the two types of dogs that provide assistance. These dogs go to certain institutions in hopes to bring relief to patience. Most of these dogs will stick to visiting places like nursing homes and other group settings however there is something called assisted therapy which is more of a one on one treatment. Boris Levinson is a therapist who had stumbled upon incorporating dogs in therapy by accident, however, he found it very effective. He kept going with dog therapy because he had finally developed a connection with a child he wasn’t able to before. Around the same time Samuel and Elizabeth Corson started incorporating dogs into facilities for patients who were uncommunicative. Patiences seemed to be responding to this method and began to build relationships with the staff as well. 

Human–dog relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic: booming dog adoption during social isolation  


In the article Human–dog relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic: booming dog adoption during social isolation by Liat Morgan she talks about how covid has affected us and how dogs have helped. During Covid-19 there people were suffering for all sorts of health issues while being locked away in their house. Dogs and cats have shown to positively increase mental health. In stress-full positions such as the pandemic these pets have shown tremendous help with anxiety and depressions. Those who also deal with social anxiety whether the pandemic caused it or not will show lots of progress with a therapy animal. During the isolation there was a larger population adopting dogs. Studies have shown that humans and dogs are more alike due to the fact that we are both “social animals” where we can both benefit from one another. However the relationship between the two is bidirectional because we have shown to have negative effects on animals. There is a strong correlation between negative health and well being of the owner and the negative health and well being of the pet. During Covid-19 people were unable to take care of their pets so they gave them up so this could be related to the pandemic due to the health risks and cost it takes to take care of a dog. 

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Summaries – Senpai Pio

Parsing the new ‘humane’ food labels


It seems counterintuitive that these labels that big organizations put on their foods such as “cage-free” seem counterintuitive. This is because these organizations are able to lie about certain word choices if they follow very lenient guidelines. For an example, “cage-free” just means that the chickens are able to become free. In a video I watched in 8th grade about Purdue’s chicken farms, if every chicken were to circulate themselves perfectly at all times, one chicken would be able to go outside for about 1-2 seconds. That is possible at all.

Many organizations like the NCBA, PQA Plus, the ASIA, etc. have guidelines that extremely lenient. In the PQA Plus, the organization dealing with pigs, no third party audit is required. In the NCBA and the ASIA, organizations dealing with cows and sheep, they are not required to audit at all. They are not even required to have a grazing pasture for the animals.

While change for this is extremely difficult, there has been a slight change due to consumer pressure. Organizations like the American Welfare Association are requiring stricter rules for the animals. This benefits smaller, local farmers, but it only equals out to about 0.001% of all the U.S animals raised for slaughter.

That Daily Shower Can Be a Killer

It seems counterintuitive that taking a shower will increase your risk for death, but for the elderly that is true. A big part of becoming older is the risk of falling. Many times elderly are severely injured, unable to get up, and they can often face consequences later in life. When the risk of falling in the shower is low, by taking at least one every single day that number can eventually catch up to you.

The New Guinea’s have used this logic with situations that may impact them. When setting up tents at night, they will never do it underneath a dead tree. Although its been up there for years beyond years, there is a chance that it will fall. The New Guinea’s try to avoid situations that could result in death as much as possible.

While clicking on this article I thought it was going to be something ridiculous, this has completely changed my mind. Being a young adult, if I fall in the shower, I am able to stand right back up. But for many people that may not be the case. Although I do not believe we should stop taking showers altogether, realizing the possibilities of getting severely injured are extremely important.

Does Using Paper Take CO2 out of the Environment?

It seems counterintuitive to recycle paper since it is already a renewable resource, but the amount of carbon in the paper it much more than most of us think. In fact, there is about 440 pounds of carbon per ton of paper. This is due to plants breathing in carbon dioxide. When the trees are chopped down, the carbon is still inside the trees which then gets turned into paper.

I did not expect thing at all. When thinking about the environment, everyone points a finger at plastic bottles, plastic bag, and plastic straws, but the alternative could be just as worst. Do scientist truly want our world to get better, or do they just want to seem like they want to the world to be better? Does going all paper really have an effect?

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Summaries – Shazammm

Vancouver combats heroin by giving its addicts the best smack in the world


It seems counterintuitive that a solution to solving drug-related crimes would be to administer drug addicts narcotics. In Vancouver, a program called Insite is offering a safe place for heroin addicts to shoot up as well as supplying them with clean supplies and the best heroin. According to Allen Schauffler, some medical practitioners believe that giving heroin addicts their drug in a supervised place like Insite will take them off the streets and decrease their likelihood of breaking the law for the sake of obtaining heroin. 

Insite stemmed from earlier research experiments that aimed to ease heroin addicts off the drug by replacing it with alternative drugs. However, these tests did not go as planned.   

A majority of rehab center workers believe that this is a bad solution, for they feel that this does not encourage heroin addicts to stop using. They believe that this practice is merely killing them. Either way, heroin addicts will be heroin addicts. If they are not willing to seek help, they will do anything to feed their addiction. Even if it is through committing the worst crimes. 

Men Defining Rape: A History

It seems counterintuitive that men today are underestimating rape and the catastrophic consequences it has on its victims. You would think that in 2023, after centuries of women being oppressed by a patriarchal system and learning about the human body, men would finally see women as humans rather than objects. But perhaps they are slow learners. Men over the course of history have set laws regarding rape. Some were stepping in the right direction to social progress, others were merely corrupt, destroying the right for female rape victims to speak out about their assault.    

Mormon Baptism Targets Anne Frank — Again


It seems counterintuitive that Mormon churches are still practicing proxy baptisms of Jewish people, particularly Holocaust victims, even though they made a deal with Jewish leaders 1995 to stop this custom. In the middle of February 2012, in a Mormon temple in the Dominican Republic, a member of the LDS Church baptized Anne Frank posthumously. 

Helen Radkey, a former member of the LDS Church, discovered this transgression as well as database information regarding Elie Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor. She found that the Church was going to baptize him posthumously. Other accusations regarding Simon Wiesenthal’s parents got to the press, forcing the LDS Church to publicly recognize their fault.

It is also extra counterintuitive since Anne Frank left no descendants. Nor did she have Mormon ancestors, which, if she did, would give the Church a green pass to baptize her. But this was not the case.

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Summaries – rowanluver29


It is counterintuitive that, women should have a say in rape laws about women, in the past present and future. But since the beginning of time, men were the only people allowed to make laws about statutory and forcible rape. That all changed January 2012 when the definition of ‘forcible rape’ was finally updated.

The article “Men Defining Rape – A History” by Erika Eichelberger, gives us a timeline of men and their laws about rape, both what it is and what it is not. From the beginning of time, until a little too recently, men had excuses for rape and why it was okay for women to go through this kind of mental and physical trauma.

            Times ranging from 1780 B.C – about the 1200’s, rape was considered a damage of property, not to the woman, but to the woman’s father. They soon later added on to that law, and stated that it was 1.) a damage to the father’s property and 2.) you had to give the father 50 shekels and take her to the alter. In later years, it soon then came down to if you conceived or not, the law stated “Without a woman’s consent, she could not conceive.” Later, rape then started to depend on if you were described as a “a virgin, a wife, a widow, a nun or a whore.” They also completely ignored cases of rape when it had to deal with a colored woman.

            A lot of the past (but more previous) laws had statements including: “You cannot thread a moving needle”, meaning if a woman did not squirm during intercourse, it was not rape. Also, “For without an excitation of lust, or the enjoyment of pleasure in the venereal act, no conception can probably take place. So that if an absolute rape were to be perpetrated, it is not likely she would become pregnant.” Meaning a woman could only get pregnant from rape if she enjoyed it. Us as the readers, know that all of these laws are inhumane and degrading to women, but in the past, men only saw women as objects rather than people, making all of this normal.

            In more previous years, women started to have to have more evidence for rape, like doing tests and finding 1.) physical damage 2.) DNA from the male on your skin or inside of your body. These laws still remain today. The definition of what rape is has changed, and there has been a lot more understanding and compassion to those raped. But, there is still a political battle to this day about whether or not men should be the ones making laws about a woman’s body, about both rape and abortion.


            It seems counterintuitive that a lot of what goes on in the medical field deals with advanced technology. Especially prosthetics, and machines that allow doctors to see what is going on in the different parts of our bodies. But would you ever expect these same machines to be able to read what is on our minds?

            A technology called electrocorticography, has been being used since the 1950’s to help those who suffer from seizures. This form of technology allows doctors to see which part of the brain the seizure is stemming from. But what was just recently discovered is that this same technology can also be used to control robotic arms and other limbs. Another thing they discovered is that with a certain software, they are able to read patients minds.

            For example, they experimented this with one of their patients that suffered from severe epilepsy. When they told the patient to open and close his hand, the virtual hand on the screen closed, when they told him to open it, he opened it. He was able to control what the virtual hand was doing with his thoughts, when using the ECoG machine.

            Another thing scientists were able to discover with this machine was that we can soon be able to read one’s internal thoughts. When we want to verbalize something, the machine caught that there has to be two signals sent to the brain, one that allows us to use our muscles to speak, and another that sends signals to the brains auditory system. But, when someone simply thinks something, the only signal sent to the brain is the auditory signal, preparing the body to listen to something. In one small experiment, the machine tried to pick up on several dozen unspoken words that someone had thought, and it was right about half of them.

            Some fret that this technology will soon be too invasive, and not be used to benefit those in need. Other think that this type of technology can only educate us about the human body, not harm us.



            It seems counterintuitive that Anne Frank’s diary is a pure historical piece of writing from a 13 year old girl. Everyone has this expectation that Anne Frank wrote this diary in times of her despair, and it was soon found and kept for safe keeping, then got published as it was. But in reality, Anne Frank made edits and updates to her journal, not making it as real and raw as we were taught to believe.

            When Anne Frank was 13 is when she began to write the diary. She then went back at the age of 15 and decided she wanted the diary to be published. She crossed things out and rewrote them, she made new pages and tore the old ones out, all to make it more enjoyable to the future public eye. So, in reality, was Anne Frank’s diary really a diary? We all know that diaries are the truth about what we are feeling or what is going on in our current lives. Leading us to think Anne did the same thing in her diary, but we were wrong.

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My Hypothesis-blueee

  1. Technology is harmful.
  2. Kids get drawn in very easily.
  3. Bullying is done easily.
  4. Too much technology can effect a child’s learning development.
  5. People tend to pay more attention to their devices, then their family.
  6. It causes people to lack of sleep.
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Good Poem, Bad Essay

I’ve been having a nice conversation with one of your classmates, who likes and appreciates poetry, about a passion we share for the particular style(s) of writing known loosely as verse.

We can all agree as a class that the work below exhibits great skill, and that the result provokes both thought and, for its beauty, admiration.

But we should also acknowledge that it wouldn’t qualify as a passing submission as a persuasive argument to a college composition course.


The crown translates a woman to a Queen –
endless gold, circling itself, an O like a well,
fathomless, for the years to drown in – history’s bride,
anointed, blessed, for a crowning. One head alone
can know its weight, on throne, in pageantry,
and feel it still, in private space, when it’s lifted:
not a hollow thing, but a measuring; no halo,
treasure, but a valuing; decades and duty. Time-gifted,
the crown is old light, journeying from skulls of kings
to living Queen.                                          

Its jewels glow, virtues; loyalty’s ruby, blood-deep; sapphire’s ice resilience; emerald evergreen;
the shy pearl, humility. My whole life, whether it be long
or short, devoted to your service.
 Not lightly worn.

I wouldn’t bother to point this out except that we composition instructors are sometimes criticized for necessarily imposing rules on our very talented students who want to express themselves in a personal style not suited to the norms of college composition, a preliminary form of academic writing.

I’m also compelled to note that the poem was written on a very tight self-imposed deadline (The Queen just finished dying!) and by definition did not go through enough rewrites. Good as the poem is, you can probably find room for improvement in it. Its author, the estimable Carol Anne Duffy, will have years to regret not taking (having) time for another rewrite or two.

None of that should dissuade us from savoring its insights and revelations.

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