- Clay, Karen (2001) “Prices and Price Dispersion on the Web: Evidence from the Online Book Industry” The Journal Of Industrial Economics. December 2001
Background: This article examines price dispersion comparison and dispersion amongst online booksellers. Prices of books sold by online sellers were proven to be lower than those sold by independent sellers, as large corporations are able to succeed due to their ability to advertise on a massive scale and sell books for less than their wholesale price
How I used it: I used this source to elaborate the growing monopoly of online booksellers and the use of price cuts to deter competition.
2. Chu, Chih-Peng (2012) “On The Competition Between An Online Bookstore and A Physical Bookstore” NETNOMICS. December 6, 2012.
Background: This article gives a deeper insight into the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and online booksellers. While online booksellers can provide customers with lower product prices, they cannot provide them with immediate gratification, something that small bookstores can do, but with the added drawback of charging higher prices for products.
How I used it: As this study indicates the competitiveness between online and physical bookstores, as well as welfare analysis, I used this source to further elaborate upon my argument against online booksellers.
3. Raffaelli, Ryan L. (2020) “Reinventing Retail: The Novel Resurgence of Independent Bookstores” Harvard Business School. January 2020
Background: This study by Harvard Business School examines the vital aspects that a bookstore must possess in order to survive against its online competitors. By tapping into a larger social movement (ie: “shopping small”), Indie booksellers are becoming more resilient.
How I used it: I used this source as a part of my counterintuitive argument to present successful strategies being utilized by Indie bookstores.
4. Wisea, Satria (2022) “The Effect of Sales Promotion and Store Atmosphere Mediated by Positive Emotion on Impulse Buying for Customers in Bookstores” Udyana University, Indonesia. May 17, 2022
Background: This study examines the psychology behind what store environments are favorable and attract costumers and what designs and environments don’t. In order to produce frequency and diversity, stores utilize promotions such as bonuses, shopping vouchers, and discounts: all of which make customers more likely to impulse-buy. Research has shown that a proper store environment (no harsh lighting, non-abrasive smells, etc), can actually increase the likelihood of impulsive purchases.
How I used it: I used this article as yet another source to emphasize how physical bookstores must offer an environment that online bookstores cannot in order to maintain clientele.
5. Ghosh, Iman (2021) “34% of America’s small businesses are still closed due to COVID-19. Here’s why it matters” World Economic Forum. May 5, 2021
Background: This article examines how small businesses suffered during the pandemic, and still continue to suffer as a result. As approximately 99.9% of businesses in the U.S fall under the umbrella of being small businesses, their success plays a huge role in the economy.
How I used it: I used pieces of this article as additional evidence (aside from Amazon and other online booksellers) as to why small bookshops have been a failing industry.
6. O’Brien, Reese (2022) “Indie Bookstores’ COVID Recovery: Leveraging TikTok and BookShop.org” Pulitzer Center. April 22, 2022
Background: This article details how bookstores have successfully learned to adapt to current trends and modern living in an effort to revive business.
How I used it: This article was a personal favorite and honestly a godsend, as it combined many of the ideas I had mentioned in my writings into one source.
You’ve asked for a Grade Please on this post, P&P. It’s so incomplete that the grade can only hurt you, but maybe that’s what you wanted to see to help you decide how badly you need a good grade on this. Maybe?
Graded SAT APR 29.
Regrade available if you improve your Notations.