- Akhtar, A. (2015, October). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics: CQ: the international journal of healthcare ethics committees. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/.
Background: The author Aysha Akhtar, discussed how procedures in a laboratory may influence the animal’s behavior for which the scientist cannot control. The animal’s behavior can even affect the outcome of the experiment. Having an animal in an enclosed space can cause distress and even abnormal behaviors in the animals.
How I used it: The article I had chosen was the first one that made me start my research. I started to think how animals could even jeopardize the research for new medications or vaccines.
2. Pros & Cons – ProCon.org. Animal Testing. (2020, June 10). Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://animal-testing.procon.org/.
Background: The most common argument on animal experimentation is whether it is humane or not. Animals used in experiments are forced to eat/drink, and even deprivation. Sometimes animals are deliberately sickened with certain chemicals and infected with diseases. In some cases, at the end of the experiment, the animals are killed. On the other hand, animal testing contributes to life-saving treatments for humans. The first-ever vaccine was created with the help of reaching cows, which helped end smallpox. Animal testing continues to create breakthroughs with the healthcare system today.
How I used it: I used this article to support my hypothesis. I mentioned how animals used in these experiments are treated unfairly.
3. Cornett, E. M., Jones, M. R., & Kaye, A. D. (2019, May 11). Ethics of animal experimentation – springer. Ethics of Animal Experimentation. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99124-5_25.
Background: Animal research is extremely important to the advancement of medicine and even science. The number of lives saved by the inventions derived from experimentation is numerous. Even though this data seems positive, many people continue to be controversial about the opinion. Animal research first began back in the fifth century, starting with the Greeks, such as Aristotle. In this time period, the Greeks performed exploratory surgeries on live animals.
How I used it: I described the past and how people in the present do not appreciate how we treat animals.
4. Animal Research at Stanford. (n.d.). Why animal research? Animal Research at Stanford. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://med.stanford.edu/animalresearch/why-animal-research.html.
Background: The use of animal experimentation has been essential for the discovery of treatments for many years. People have always asked questions about whether animal testing is actually ethical. But animal testing has been very critical for biomedical research. Scientists have confirmed that animals are susceptible to many of the same health conditions as humans.
How I used it: The article was used to go against my hypothesis, mentioning that animals are of high importance for the future of human health.
5. The Public Engagement team at the Wellcome Genome Campus. (2017, March 3). Should animals be used in research? Debates. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.yourgenome.org/debates/should-animals-be-used-in-research.
Background: Removing animals in a lab will impede our understanding of health and disease, but sometimes these experiments shorten the quality of life for the animals. Scientists have created a principle to help minimize the pain animals could experience. The principle is called the ‘three Rs.’ The three Rs reduce, replace, and refine. First off, scientists need to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. Replacing with computer modeling, or cell culture, or even human volunteers instead of using animals. Finally, refine the way animals are cared for. Scientists need to try to minimize the pain that animals may feel. Try using less invasive procedures and improve the living conditions where the animals are staying.
How I used it: These three Rs are extremely important for experimenting. I feel as though there could be another way to develop medications and even cures for diseases.
6. PETA. (2021, November 18). Animal Testing Facts and Statistics. Animals Are Not Ours. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/animal-experiments-overview/.
Background: Peta discussed how animals are wasteful and do not even help human health. Medical medications and vaccines rarely make it to the human trials. Even in past experiments, humans were harmed by the newly transmitted vaccines. Animals seemed to be fine with the medications, but human health was compromised.
How I used it: Peta mentioned how vaccines were “invented” because these animals never seem to make it to the human trials. Which in most cases, can cause harm to humans, even though it was fine for the animals.
7. Cruelty-Free International. (n.d.). About Animal Testing. Animal Experimentation. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/about-animal-testing.
Background: The author of the article mentions what types of animals are used in each experiment. Mainly animals that are vertebrates are used in experiments, such as mammals, amphibians, and birds. Although, some invertebrates are used like octopi. Animals that are used for these experiments are only bred for that one reason, in a million-dollar facility.
How I used it: There are specifics in choosing the correct animals for experimenting. The animals chosen need to have similar structures to humans for the trials to work.
8. Lone Star College. (n.d.). Save the Animals: Stop Animal Testing. Save the animals: stop animal testing |. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.lonestar.edu/stopanimaltesting.htm.
Background: Animals deserve to have their own rights. Tom Regan, a philosophy professor at North Carolina State University, states: “Animals have a basic moral right to respectful treatment. . . .” The moral concept is wrong no matter if human health can benefit from the cause of animal experimenting.
How I used it: I used this article to describe how animals should not be forced to inflict pain for the health of humans. Animal life should not value more than a human.
9. Foundation for Biomedical Research. (2020, May 27). Medical advances. Animal Testing and Research. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from https://fbresearch.org/medical-advances/.
Background: The Foundation for Biomedical Research explains how animal experimentation has benefited human life. The research company discusses the use of everyday treatments that came from experimenting on animals, such as chemotherapy, dialysis, blood transfusion, etc.
How I used it: I used this article for the rebuttal part of my research essay. I explained how experimental research on animals has been a benefit for years, and many years to come.
10. Humane Society International. (2019, March 31). Limitations of animal tests. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.hsi.org/news-media/limitations-of-animal-tests/.
Background: The Humane Society explains how using animals for experimenting can have its limits. First of all, animals cannot test the same toxicity treatments as humans do, since the genetic make-up is different.
How I used it: I stated facts about how animal experimenting is not the best way to help find treatments for human health. For instance, mice, rats, and even rabbits have skin that absorbs chemicals quickly which humans can not do.
11. Schiffelers, M. J., Hagelstein, G., Harreman, A., & Spek, M. van der. (2005, August 1). Regulatory animal testing: A survey of the factors influencing the use of animal testing to meet regulatory requirements. DSpace Home. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/45061.
Background: The article is mainly about the suffering that animals go through within each experiment. (Which also mentions the three Rs)
How I used it: I used this article to continue with my thoughts from the article used in number 5, “Should Animals be Used in Research?”
12. Gleeson, A. (2020, August 6). Animal testing outperformed by computer modelsALFIE GLEESON. BioTechniques. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://www.biotechniques.com/drug-discovery-development/animal-testing-outperformed-by-computer-models/.
Background: Researchers from the University of Oxford (UK) have developed computer simulations using cells from humans that project future treatment better than animal experimenting.
How I used it: Using these models can help benefit human trials more closely than using animal models. Having closer, more exact measurements to humans, since these cells are from humans.