Citation Mechanics

In-text APA Citation

In an article at the Center for Disease Control’s website called “Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences,” the CDC issues the warning that a primary cause of excess weight gain in children is “eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages” such as sugary drinks. Most people hearing the term “sugary drinks” think of soda exclusively; however, the category is much broader. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, “sugary drinks consist of fruit drinks, soda, energy drinks, sport drinks, and sweetened waters.” In an attempt to alert us to the prevalence of sugar in commercial beverages, the Journal of Public Health Dentistry has compiled a list of what it considers sugary drinks, adding sweetened teas to the category. And finally, in the “Advice for Patients” section of the journal Nutrients, examples can be found of several sugary drink types including fruitades such as Gatorade and lemonade, fruit-flavored drinks like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, sodas such as Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and energy drinks like Monster or Red Bull. These drinks are found in most American homes and often considered healthy. But Jennifer Pomeranz in the Journal of Public Health Policy warns that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in most children’s diet and also their main source of calorie intake. When children drink soda, Pomeranz continued, they take in more calories than they can immediately use, and the unspent calories get converted into fat.

References

Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences. (2016, December 15). Retrieved April 16, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html

Keast, D., Fulgoni, V., Nicklas, T., & O’Neil, C. (2013). Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients5(1), 283–301. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5010283

Mallonee, L. F., Boyd, L. D., & Stegeman, C. (2017). A scoping review of skills and tools oral health professionals need to engage children and parents in dietary changes to prevent childhood obesity and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 77. doi:10.1111/jphd.12237

Ogden, Cynthia L., et al. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, 2005-2008. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2011.

Pomeranz, J. L., Munsell, C. R., & Harris, J. L. (2013). Energy drinks: An emerging public health hazard for youth. Journal of Public Health Policy, 34(2), 254-271. doi:10.1057/jphp.2013.6

I see the model. Now, how does it work?

When the author of this argument about sugary drinks makes a reference to an academic journal, website, or magazine article in her essay, she quotes or paraphrases the article’s content and provides enough details in the text to help readers find the source in the References list.

Example 1 (Publisher and Title, plus Quote):

In an article at the Center for Disease Control’s website called “Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences,“ the CDC issues the warning that a primary cause of excess weight gain in children is “eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages” such as sugary drinks.

Example 2 (Publisher plus quote):

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, “sugary drinks consist of fruit drinks, soda, energy drinks, sport drinks, and sweetened waters.”

Example 3 (Name of Journal, plus Paraphrase):

In an attempt to alert us to the prevalence of sugar in commercial beverages, the Journal of Public Health Dentistry has compiled a list of what it considers sugary drinks, adding sweetened teas to the category.

Example 4 (Name of Journal, Title of Article, plus Paraphrase):

And finally, in the “Advice for Patients” section of the journal Nutrients, examples can be found of several sugary drink types including fruitades such as Gatorade and lemonade, fruit-flavored drinks like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, sodas such as Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and energy drinks like Monster or Red Bull.

Example 5 (Author, Name of Journal, plus Paraphrase):

But Jennifer Pomeranz in the Journal of Public Health Policy warns that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in most children’s diet and also their main source of calorie intake. When children drink soda, they take in more calories than they can immediately use, and the unspent calories get converted into fat.


Exercise

YOUR TURN TO CREATE IN-TEXT CITATION:
In a Reply below, read the paragraph below, excerpted from a recent article in the New York Times.

  • Create a brief statement about something the author says.
  • Decide for yourself who the Author is.
    • Do you want to quote Jacob Goldstein, the author of the book?
    • Or do you want to quote Richard Davies, the author of the book review?
  • In creating your statement, use natural language and the in-text citation technique to provide the bibliographic information a reader would need to trace your source.
  • Decide for yourself what bibliographic information is essential.
  • Decide for yourself whether paraphrase, or direct quotation, or a combination is the best way to deliver the author’s meaning.

The Fiction That Makes the World Go Round

Jacob Goldstein is a host of NPR’s “Planet Money.” His new book features the show’s trademark storytelling: fast-paced and chatty.
Jacob Goldstein is a host of NPR’s “Planet Money.” His new book features the show’s trademark storytelling: fast-paced and chatty.

By Richard Davies
Sep. 8, 2020
Book ReviewMoney: The True Story of a Made-Up Thing by Jacob Goldstein

Of all the inventions we rely on to get through the day, nothing is as strange as money. Currency is a national bedrock that sits alongside anthems and flags; our cash — from pristine $100 bills to dog-eared 5 pound notes — seems solid, official and enduring. At the same time money is a confidence trick: an i.o.u. printed on cheap material that promises the holder nothing but more paper money. The evolving paradox of modern currency — foundational yet resting on faith — is the central theme of “Money,” a sweeping new history by Jacob Goldstein.

The main thread is set out right away: Money “seems cold and mathematical and outside the realm of fuzzy human relationships,” Goldstein asserts. But it’s really “a made-up thing, a shared fiction. Money is fundamentally, unalterably social.” The early chronicles of cash show how societies move from monies with intrinsic value (commodity currencies, like salt, or coins made from precious metal) to paper currencies that are valuable because they are tools — ways to exchange goods and services.