Portfolio-LevixVice

Visual Rhetoric

Visual Rhetoric: Ad Council–Textual Harassment

00:01-00:6 Even when the morning sun shines, the girl sleeps on her bed. Surrounding her bed are a bunch of clothes, towels, and various dark to green blankets, as well as all different kinds of pillows. The door itself is only halfway opened during the video, with the focus only on the doorframe that her sleeping posture is slightly perturbed on her right side. But before anything else, her life-sized phone from the early 2000s, which was supposed to look outdated with a dull pink color during the publishing of the video created by a small group of indie developers, turned on and began talking to her through his phone screen via yellow lighting, in which the phone is looking at her to wake up from her slumber. Which she completely ignores and returns to sleep as if she doesn’t want to hear any of it, being a teenager and annoyed by the phone.

00:10–00:14 The girl is with her family eating breakfast, which is zoomed out to show the kitchen that has no lighting and is connected to where they eat, including the turned off stove and baskets of oranges, apples, and bananas separate from each other. The walls have a unique pattern, even the blue painting near where they eat, but the lighting is now centered around her family, being her brother, father, and mother, perceptively, and the round table itself. Her body posture is slumped and frowning while her phone lights up and talks to her again before turning off for a brief moment. The mother is looking at her son, and it looks like she is lecturing him, while the father is looking at something like a newspaper, it seems. When the girl is outside, she is wearing white shorts over gray leggings with sneakers, while having a plaid hoodie carrying her backpack, and the life-size phone is walking with her on the road crossing with a sign saying “do not enter.” The environment looks like it is morning, meaning she is going to school in a suburban community with trees with nothing on them. It is the fall season, with the sky somewhat of a grayish blue. The phone began speaking to her with its head toward her while she just ignored what it had to say. 

0:24 At the school gym which is zoomed out to see its also an auditorium/stage for speaking, musicals, or orchestras. Her gym outfit is a yellow shirt and black leggings with the phone sitting on the ledge while the individual on her left is wearing the same yellow shirt but with a number at the back and blue shorts. Two students are walking out from the gym believing to be the end of gym class itself onto the next class or going home. The camera then zooms in on both her and the phone which then lights up again to talk while she stands emotionless next to the ledge, and two students wave after the phone turns off, and she simply waves back with no effort as her face is frowning from what the phone is saying. 

0:26-0:30 Now what seems to be the evening with her friends, as this might be one of her friends’ houses, four are on the couch, one lying on a pillow and another sitting on the floor, wrapped in the living room watching TV or a movie, as it seems that they are laughing at something comedic with two lamps turned on from each side of the room. Her behavior around her friends is more cheerful until the phone lights up again as the camera zooms in towards its face/screen with its face changing towards a more hostile approach and speaking to her. That makes her even more annoyed by the phone trying to talk to her while she is with her friends.

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x Background: This article was used for the Spotted Lanternflies of their flight pattern and velocity during their breach in America when getting their food from fruit trees, vines, and normal trees for their bark. In order gather food to fuel up and a nest to lay their eggs during the winter months. How I used It: The ground speed used as a running mark before taking flight upwards to their destination as create a mental map of their flight capability that also helps them to spread from place to place within a short distance.

2. Houping Liu, Oviposition Substrate Selection, Egg Mass Characteristics, Host Preference, and Life History of the Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 48, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages 1452–1468, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz123

Background: This article contains the essential nutrients and egg nests for Spotted Lanternflies which are in fact plant trees and trees from the forest. It also includes how the female of the species would reproduce before the winter season arrives with measurements.

How I used It: The egg masses were all measured by their height, width, and depth as well as the density being how much eggs that female laid on each preferred tree they would used for the right amount. It also knows about the days on which the eggs will hatch to their growth over time becomes different.

3. “Spotted Lanternfly.” About the Spotted Lanternfly, Department of Agriculture, https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/pi/prog/pests-diseases/spotted-lanternfly/about/.

Background: This article describe what each life stage of a spotted Lanternfly would turn out to be with their abilities and coloration from nymphs to adult forms.

How I used It: This was used as a continuation from the previous article to explain more of their cycle in description revealing more info about the egg masses would look like mud in September into harden dirt in June.

4. Dechaine, Andrew Chase. “Phenology, Impact, and Rearing of Lycorma Delicatula (White) (Spotted Lanternfly) in Virginia .” VTechWorks Home, Virginia Tech, 2 Apr. 2021, https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930

Background: Phenology for the Spotted Lanternfly has progressed within America impacting farming and the environment for the worse through sampling and evidence to counteract these pest.

How I Used It: The counteractions were created in order to cull the Spotted Lanternfly through the methods of insecticides on trees to be protected from those flies and eventually kill them including using the insecticide on their favorite plant, the Tree of Heaven (A. altissima).

5. Liu, Houping, and Jason Mottern. Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 27 Jan. 2017, https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article/17/1/18/2875340.

Background: This article contains information about the existence of the Gypsy Moth’s encyrtid egg parasitoid called the Ooencyrtus kuvanae that used to control the Gypsy Moth population in America from the 1900s.

How I Used It: This parasitoid can be used effectively against the Spotted Lanternflies through implanting the host the eggs into a biological sense to protected and then be eaten off in any life stage the Lanternfly would be in, whether inside the egg masses during winter.

6. Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw.

Background: The insecticide used on agriculture from the northeast to protect shrubs and fruit trees before the harvest starts during the fall season.

How I used It: This would be connected to number four for protection from the Spotted Lanternflies, that even stopping the egg masses from being planted.

7. Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Academic.oup.com, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627?login=true.

Background: Methods on capturing Spotted Lanternflies from where they live and before winter time comes around.

How I used It: Such capturing methods include the weaknesses of each Lanternfly of their preferred tree, the stage they are in, and how effective trap can be to cull the insects fully.

8. Wang, Rong-Rong, et al. “Relating antennal sensilla diversity and possible species behaviour in the planthopper pest Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae).” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 3, 27 Mar. 2018, p. e0194995. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A532485920/AONE?u=rowan&sid=bookmark-AONE&xid=9a13d451. Accessed 6 Dec. 2021.

Background: This details the differences the male and female Spotted Lanternfly through biological process as well as behavioral senses that extends from their sensory structures.

How I used It: I connect it to number 4 and 3 of their species being planthopper to learn their weaknesses and exploiting them without the need of insecticides that would harm other creatures as well.

9. Lawrence Barringer, Claire M Ciafré, Worldwide Feeding Host Plants of Spotted Lanternfly, With Significant Additions From North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 999–1011, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa093

Background: Spotted Lanternflies depend on tree nutrients; such as the bark and tree sap that contains the sugar to refuel to survive and reproduce.

How I use it: I’ll use it to connect it with number two and seven to use this knowledge to plant traps around the tree.

10. Liu, Houping. “Occurrence, Seasonal Abundance, and Superparasitism of Ooencyrtus Kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as an Egg Parasitoid of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma Delicatula) in North America.” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 22 Jan. 2019, https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/2/79#cite.

Background: contains the functionality of superparasitism of how the Ooencyrtus Kuvanae wasp uses upon its prey of choice.

How I use it: connect it with number 5 with how the wasp would plant parasites inside the Spotted Lanternflies’ eggs and it effect on the offspring when it hatches.

11. Mohn, Aprille Noelle. “Anxiety: Environmental and Otherwise – Jayscholar.etown.edu.” JayScholar, Elizabethtown College, Mar. 2021, https://jayscholar.etown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=englstu.

Background: This contains the environmental anxiety around the world and it includes the invasive species hazard that would harm natural balance.

How I use it: To associate it with Spotted Lanternflies as a invasive species that would decrease the tree population and make worse for the other species.

12. Liu, Houping. “Seasonal Development, Cumulative Growing Degree-Days, and Population Density of Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on Selected Hosts and Substrates.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 1 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1171/5879580?login=true.

Background: The population density for Spotted Lanternfly from their sites, substrates, and sampling to know how many are these insects are in during the research in each tree.

How I use it: researching on the trees they use for their egg masses and how will they grow in size.

13. Urban, Julie M, and Dennis Calvin. “Early Response (2018–2020) to the Threat of Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Pennsylvania.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 26 Aug. 2021, https://academic.oup.com/aesa/article-abstract/114/6/709/6358080.

Background: The history of how the Spotted Lanternflies came to America and its efforts to infest the northeast.

How I use it: becoming aware of their emergence and damage they’ve done on the landscape and since 2014.

14. Nixon, Laura J, et al. “Development of Behaviorally Based Monitoring and Biosurveillance Tools for the Invasive Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) .” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 21 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1117/5895233?login=true.

Background: monitoring the Spotted Lanternflies through the traps which the researchers can learn more about the population.

How I use it: to connect it to number 9 and 12

15. Urban, Julie M. “Perspective: Shedding Light on Spotted Lanternfly Impacts in the USA.” Wiley Online Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 10 Oct. 2019, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ps.5619.

Background: More information about the consequences of how Spotted Lanternflies will corrupt the environment as pestilence.

How I use it: to connect it with number 11 and 9 in a way the environment is becoming imbalance; due to the invasive species’ presence.

Self-Reflective Statement

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I wasn’t well versed on my first day in David Hodges’ college composition II class, because the coursework was required to be typed and the objectives had to be followed to attain optimal clarity for the people reading to form their own statements and opinions. To be honest, I was not that great at writing as it never really interested me. During this semester, I found myself pondering the practices, such as the riddles and classwork, that were related to what we needed to learn, such as: never using first person or finding counterarguments to your papers. Many of the questions Professor Hodges gave us required counterintuition in figuring out the answer. Although it may not always be simple, just trying to think outside the box would be the best approach to any situation.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

My white paper was about spotted lanternflies and their negative impact on the environment. The information I’ve provided about the looming threat to trees’ bark and sap, which are essential for growth and nourishment, is correct. Farmers who grow fruit trees and grape vines are also concerned about the impact of these insects on their valuable resources. The population was able to grow thanks to traps and research into their weaknesses, such as learning their flight patterns and determining where they prefer to rest and mate with females. These sources would be used to create a statement for people who want to learn more about the Spotted Lanternflies that are causing a nuisance in nature, and for those who want to stop them, I would need to reach out to them using persuasion and evidence to make them choose of their own free will.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My own writing needs improvement a while ago in grammar and fluency for the audience to understand what I’m trying to write down the evidence and thoughts in a clearer format. Within the context, like the visual rhetoric needed context without the sound to learn what is happening on each frame of the video. The arguments presented are somewhat in need of guidance, whether trying to argue about the Spotted Lanternfly are needed to eliminate from North America through traps and investigating their weaknesses to be exploited. Including the purpose to let the reader be more supportive for the cause.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

It somewhat met the expectations, but I still need to refine some of the skills learned from class, like getting the main idea across without confusing anyone in my sentences. Maybe during my free time at home, I would need to ask my brother or parents to check if the ideas are presented well enough for people to know if I still need improvement or not. However, I’ll get practice from the writing center and see through my work to make sure my approach to writing will change.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

The responsibilities for my work have improved throughout the semester from my portfolio and non-portfolio works in order to make sure each one is stabilized with information about Spotted Lanternflies as well include the citations to have people recognize where the information comes from in the URL. However, creating complex ideas aren’t my forte with how complex the ideas should be for the white paper and I’m not that confident in my writing because I might confuse the reader with the question that I might not figure it out myself. Nevertheless, the responsibility was handled, and I’ll concentrate on creating complex ideas that nobody has thought up before.

Definition

During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-present, spotted lanternflies (Lycorma delicatula) have invaded several areas in the northeast region of the U.S. These invasive insects are discovered to have successfully transported larvae and nymphs on firewood trading shipments from China. This has resulted in the devastation of fruit trees and grape vineyards depleting nutients and decreasing the chances of survival by causing trunk wounds and tree mold to develop. This has the potential to devastate agricultural chains and disrupt ecosystems. The primary food source for these lanternflies in their native habitat is Ailanthus altissima, also known as the “Tree of Heaven” in China; however, this plant species is also an invasive species worldwide. The lanternfliescan also eat a variety of other fruit trees from orchards in rural areas in America. Proposals for managing these invasive insects including capturing and returning them to their source, or eliminating them on sight near agricultural areas, as well as monitoring any lanternflies in the area. Spotted Lanternflies have a distinct pattern, a red body with black spots on brownish-grey wings being apart of a category of plant hopper from the eastern continents of China, India and South Korea respectively. The introduction of invasive species has opened up the topic of previous invasive species migrated mistakenly from their natural habitats to new one disrupting the natural order of nature.

The average size is 1 inch in length with a life span of one year. They are to lay around 30-50 eggs during the fall and winter season. Adult Lanternflies use upwinds to fly up 40 meters and are able to land on fruit tree orchards using their frontal wingspan and with an average airspeed of about 4.64 m/s. Anemotactic measurements are used to chart the movements of an object or thing in relation to the direction of the wind, allowing anyone to learn about their behavioral patterns. Using these measurements, researchers are able to figure out how the lanternflies use short flights to save small amounts of energy before their angled flight to the food source without exhausting themselves. Such strategy allows Lanternflies to anticipate their direction without falling to the ground, which most Lanternflies have tried and failed to do. This gives rise to the idea of how lanternflies easily migrated across the North American continent, flying from tree to tree and populating their kind to become an unstoppable force. Their average ground speed is 2.65 m/s as they take off at the 10 second mark in their bout towards the upwind by 4.64 m/s from the adult Spotted Lanternflies.

Fruit trees, such as apples, oranges, and peaches as well as grape vineyard orchards provide essential nutrients for spotted lanternflies as well as nesting grounds for their offspring, which has serious consequences for American farmers who have infestations of lanternflies and other orchard feeding bugs eating their hard-earned orchard trees, harming the economy and stores across the continent. Fruits have been treated with insecticides to keep their fresh look from being eaten away by lanternflies and other insects in the wild. Although the effects on the adult spotted lanternfly would be effective, the other issue would be the reproduction cycle of the spotted Lanternfly’s eggs and nymphs, which could be solved by using Chlorpyrifo to completely kill all the eggs from their hiding place. Another insecticide idea is to use Thiamethoxam and Bifenthrin, which are from a subcategory of insecticides that can be used to controlling insects for up to fourteen days and can be used directly on spotted lanternflies by approximately half of the population, which leaves the other half unharmed calmly. The cost of these insecticides to humans, however, would be their toxic hazard for everyone’s health, including taste and smell, if eaten by herbivore or omnivore animals, resulting in a double-edged sword for orchard protection that can eventually harm other lifeforms.

The alternative method for preventing the spread of Spotted Lanternflies in the area is to use lures and traps to capture them using their habitats such as covering tree trunks with sticky bands being the Bug Barrier or web cote tree bands with the use of methyl salicylate as the insect attractant lure from where the lanternfly might climb up, whether it’s a fruit orchard tree or a host tree, which stops them in their tracks, which was used on lanternflies that have already hatched from their eggs. The Pecan Weevil trap is also known as the Circle trunk trap because it is latched around the tree trunk by a velcro strip that’s been stapled and glued onto the jar with the insecticide strips to kill the lanternflies as well as a zipper bag that will collect them after two weeks of eliminating lanternflies in their late nymph and adult stages. The Intercept panel  creates a slip-slide effect with fluon solution and traps lanternflies in a jar with propylene glycol, which are  dumped from a paper cone strainer into a plastic bag to be sorted. Tall prism traps are similar to the sticky tree band traps, but they have an internal plastic prism supported by cables and pipes and painted brown to attract lanternflies in addition to the sticky bands around the surfaces. These traps have the greatest effect on lanternflies because the bugbarrier bands have a higher chance of capturing Lanternflies in the sticky tree bands. Regrettably, there are some disadvantages such as other insects becoming entangled in the traps and most lanternflies avoiding contact with the traps. The traps, on the other hand, have statistical value in terms of which life stage of the lanternfly prefers the attraction that surrounds the traps.

Lanternfly nymphs and adults have used their antennal sensory function to develop behavioral patterns that match their environment from their organs. The sensilla placodea and plate organ sensory have increased in size from 33 to 125 times during the nymphal instar cycle. The sexual dimorphism of adult Lanternflies sensilla placodea, which is related to mating behavior between males and females.

Reference sheet

Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x 

Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw

Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Validate User, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages 269–276, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627.

Causal

The spotted lanternflies belong to a group of plant-hoppers that eat a variety of tree nutrients, including cherry, maple, and black gum trees, which serve as both a nesting and feeding place for their young. The Lanternfly-Killing Wasp (Dryinus browni) is a parasitic wasp that brainwashes the host through stringer insertion in order to protect its babies, which will be eaten by their young. While native to four Asian continents (China, India, South Korea, and North Korea), they have been imported to the United States by firewood exports in 2014. Their influence over nine states in the United States, including New Jersey, New York, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware, has caused native insects and animals to change their diets to this new arrival, with chickens, praying mantis, and green frogs eating these insects to reduce their population in balance.

The basic goal of host trees is to provide a safe haven for migratory insects from other continents. In this case, the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima), a Chinese invasive plant, provides a safe haven for Spotted Lanternflies to hide from predators while also nurturing the next generation of Spotted Lanternflies. Trees being infested by these Spotted Lanternflies would result in tree mold and trunk wounds resulting it death creating an effect of the ecosystem’s dependency on trees. Their diet must be of plants and trees that have nutrient sap in the trunk, stem, and leaf parts of the tree indiscriminately. However, they may also consume apples, grapes (including the vines), and peaches that the Spotted Lanternfly would eat vegetables; not only do Spotted Lanternflies consume fruit and vegetables. But they also scour the land for orchards and gardens to feed on, which will become a shortage of fruit and vegetables for supermarkets into scarcity for people.

Such strategy allows Spotted Lanternflies to anticipate their direction without falling to the ground, which most lanternflies have tried and failed to do. This gives rise to the idea of how Spotted Lanternflies easily migrated across the North American continent, flying from tree to tree and populating their kind to become an unstoppable force. Their average ground speed is 2.65 m/s as they take off at the 10 second mark in their bout towards the upwind by 4.64 m/s from the adult Spotted Lanternflies. This tactic was discovered through anemotactic measurements, which charted the Spotted Lanternfly’s movements in relation to the direction of the wind, allowing anyone to learn about their behavioral patterns.

Proposals for managing these (including capturing and returning them to their source or eliminating them on sight near agricultural areas, as well as monitoring any lanternflies in the area) are both expensive and extremely complicated. The method of using traps and lures to capture Spotted Lanternflies requires patience and caution in determining the best hiding spot for these insects, which can be found in trees or other nearby objects. Such traps using sticky bands on tree trunks are made to stop them in their track through the use of insect attractant (methyl salicylate), or the Pecan Weevil trap makes use of insecticide stripes that kills the Spotted Lanternfly and drops towards a jar attached and stapled by Velcro strips, glue, and stapler onto the tree. Other methods include using chemicals to trap (fluon solution) and kill (propylene glycol) both young and adult Spotted Lanternflies being that are strained into a plastic bag, as well as building brown prisms out of cables and pipes with sticky bands wrapped around them. Using insecticides all over the trees is an extreme method of protecting both orchard and forest trees from extinction. These are not only lethal to bugs, but they can also be extremely toxic to humans and animals if they eat or smell them for both omnivore and herbivore alike.

The climate arises as a defense against adult Spotted Lanternflies in the winter season, when the freezing temperatures cause the adult population to die off, but their eggs, which are inside a host tree, will survive until spring, when they can flourish. The new generation of Spotted Lanternflies, lay about 30-50 of the egg masses produced by the female Spotted Lanternfly and will automatically die after laying 2 or 3 egg masses. Spotted lanternflies have a tendency to plan to survive through adapting in a different country with the advantages and disadvantages that they would encounter with Americans becoming more aware of how these insects will be curbed again. Traps were used to capture and eliminate them, and they were reintroduced by native animals and insects in America, as well as their motivations and behavioral instincts.

Rebuttal

Spotted lanternflies are a nuisance in America because of their destructive nature, eating away the trees’ bark and the seeds that, if planted, will become trees for the new generation. Insecticides would also help kill the insects, but would in turn harm the plants, trees, and other organisms because of their toxicity. Stopping the spread would require everyone’s cooperation to create traps to either eliminate the pests for good or relocate them to their natural habitat in China. Even with such techniques like the traps and motions to stop these spotted lanternflies from coming to America, the outcome will never change. They are now, even with the climate changing from colder to colder, stepping into the winter season, waiting to be born when spring arrives. No matter how much time is spent getting rid of them, it will automatically result in a conflict of nature to fix the imbalance caused by the Spotted Lanternfly.

These reasons are to be given as nobody can tell if the spread will ever stop. The Spotted Lanternfly has found its place in America, just like how the Gypsy Moth was introduced in 1869 as being a native insect in Europe and Asia. But the parasitoid called the Ooencyrtus Kuvanae wasp, which was introduced from Japan to America in 1909, has limited the Gypsy Moth’s spread from 1911–1971 through the laying of its eggs on the host in its caterpillar form, where the hatchling would kill the host as food. This parasitoid has also been doing the same to spotted lanternflies in 2016. This causes a rift in their spread as they are culled by this parasitoid to have their hatchlings protected by the Spotted Lanternfly and then be eaten alive after hatching. Superparasites is the use of female parasitoid behavior to lay their eggs on an insect that has already fallen prey to the parasite and has developed over time. The estimated time to plant parasites in the Spotted Lanternflies’ eggs was from when March was over to the middle of April, when scientists collected these eggs and placed them inside incubators to see the development at close hand. Parasitic wasps have also joined in the fray to lay parasitic substances on the eggs and were collected. Their emergence was recorded the following day, and the eggs were hatching from their exit holes, which determines their existence inside the hosts’ eggs. This method, using another creature that was crucial against the Gypsy Moth, is both incredible and somewhat curious. If the parasitoid can stop the spread, will the spotted lanternflies become immune to the superparasite attacks and fight back with each generation? Though this questions on how it will fair against when winter and any other events during their lifecycle, but hopefully the parasitoid can help stop the Spotted Lanternfly population from growing even more problematic for the community.

Spotted Oviposition Substrate Selection Lanternflies lay their eggs in locations other than dead tree trunks. These locations could be shrubs, building structures, or vines 200 cm above ground. Its host preferences are determined by nymphs and adults from 23 plant species (13 trees, 1 white ash, 5 shrubs, 5 vines, and 1 oriental bittersweet). The density of the egg masses ranges from 0.2 to 75.2 masses/m2, with an average of 6.0 to 6.7 egg masses/m2, but can vary between 2.3-32.5 egg masses/m2 and 0.2-45.4 egg masses/m2 depending on the substrate type.

Spotted lanternflies in their nymph stage have four instar stages that grow their bodies from May to September. The first three instar stages are all black and covered in white spots and are only 1/4 inch with the ability to leap away from any danger such as predators or environmental hazards.

My Hypothesis

  1. Spotted lanternfly eggs should return to China permanently before future generations are born.
  2.  Spotted Lanternflies must be prevented from coming into contact with firewood, hardwood, or grapes by restricting the shipping trade in China and letting their traders check out for any lanternflies.
  3. The Lanternflies’ eggs and larvae must be taken out from the firewood or any hatching area it has propagated onto and sent to a separated province where no lanternfly is near the docks or any wood. 
  4. Only through the actions of the local citizens must prevent lanternflies’ population of lanternflies from spreading in their country by either elimination of the species from other countries or by taking them off through the trading examination. 
  5. Government officials should enact a trading policy to check any invasive species such as the spotted Lanternfly from spreading over the world and creating an imbalance to the ecosystem.
  6. The destruction of the spotted lanternfly would help with the aid of the policy for invasive species to not only kill them but send them off to labs where the species can be studied under federal supervision. 
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