- CARPENTER, L. A. U. R. A. M. (2002). Gender and the meaning and experience of virginity loss in the contemporary United States. Gender & Society, 16(3), 345–365. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243202016003005
Background: This detailed analysis focuses on how gender affects the idea of virginity and virginity loss— a conceptual idea. The central argument of the analysis is that men and women perceive virginity and virginity loss differently. Sixty-one women and men of diverse sexualities and ethnicities all gathered to answer a set of questions with conductor of the study, Laura M. Carpenter, at Johns Hopkins University.
How I used it: This analysis was the foundation of my thesis— what initially got me started on working towards my research. Carpenter brings forward a new perspective that teaches readers that men and women conceptualize virginity and virginity loss differently. Inspired, I began to question my own ideas of virginity and virginity loss.
- Wight, D., Parkes, A., Strange, V., Allen, E., Bonell, C., & Henderson, M. (2008). The quality of young people’s heterosexual relationships: A longitudinal analysis of characteristics shaping subjective experience. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40(4), 226–237. https://doi.org/10.1363/4022608
Background: This academic article details a largescale study managed by European researchers from different universities around the United Kingdom. Leaders of the research team surveyed the quality and different aspects of heterosexual young adult couples in both Scotland and England. Researchers argue that sexual relationships overlook subjective experiences and enjoyment. After conducting this study, researchers found that sexual relationships are a personal experience effected by background, age, gender, and circumstances relating to the sexual interaction.
How I used it: This article demostrates that sexual interactions are a subjective manner. A personal experience, sexual intercourse is highly subjective. I used this newly found information to argue that female virginity is ambiguous, like sexual intercourse, female virginity is subjective.
- Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T.-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(2), 173–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x
Background: This remarkable article published under the Psychology of Women Quarterly is an outline describing how objectification affects women’s lives and mental health. Primarily discussing issues in abstracts, this article promotes the notion that objectification causes a number of mental health problems, including depression and anxiety. Permanently altered, girls and women face a lack of self-worth. Authors Barbara L. Fredrickson and Tomi-Ann Roberts argue that objectification (of women) is a deep-rooted issue that must be eliminated in order to help improve the lives of girls and women alike.
How I used it: This outstanding article was the meat of my causal argument. The data and analysis of this academic article was rich in its information. Utterly moved, I was inspired to strategically use information presented by the best means possible.
- Kalkan, M., Batık, M. V., Kaya, L., & Turan, M. (2019). Peter Pan syndrome “men who don’t grow”: Developing a scale. Men and Masculinities, 24(2), 245–257. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184×19874854
Background: Recently published, this article briefly discusses what the Peter Pan Syndrome is and how it affects men, furthering along with a detailed analysis of the Peter Pan syndrome— coming to the conclusion that it is a spectrum. A sizable spectrum, researchers focus on placing men, who have characteristics similar to Peter Pan on the spectrum— detailing results.
How I used it: This article helped me better understand the Peter Pan Syndrome and how men are placed on the spectrum that is. A multiplex spectrum, I learned that men who have traits similar to Peter Pan can affect society at large, resulting in a domino effect.
- Parenthood, P. (n.d.). Gender Identity & Roles: Feminine Traits & Stereotypes. Planned Parenthood. Retrieved December 3, 2021, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/gender-identity/sex-gender-identity/what-are-gender-roles-and-stereotypes.
Background: In a brief Q&A-style article, presented by Planned Parenthood, practitioners answer commonly asked questions about gender roles and stereotypes, thus the article title “What are gender roles and stereotypes?” Planned Parenthood argues that gender roles exist and continue to permit while stereotypes concerning gender roles affect individuals immensely.
How I used it: Planned Parenthood publishes helpful information to the public, all for free. I took advantage of certified information and used it to strengthen my causal argument. Typically, as I further learned from the article, gender roles still apply and affect people in a negative manner. Women are still believed to play more “caring,” “motherly,” and “attentive” roles while men are believed to play more “tougher” and “assertive” roles in society. Gender roles are a myth and I debunk common beliefs about men and women in my casual argument.
- Eagly, A. H., & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(4), 543–558. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167289154008
Background: A comprehensive article, authors Alice H. Eagly and Antonio Mladic of Purdue University breakdown gender stereotypes towards men and women, thoroughly and in a straightforward manner. The article details the attitudes both women and men have towards each other and how negative outlooks affect society as a whole.
How I use it: Like the Planned Parenthood article, Eagly and Mladic’s scholarly article focuses on the impact of stereotypes, though more detailed. Both informational and theoretical, this article helped me to further explain the impact of stereotypes throughout my arguments.
- Parenthood, P. (n.d.). What is virginity & the hymen?: Losing your virginity. Planned Parenthood. Retrieved December 3, 2021, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/sex/virginity.
Background: This straightforward article issued by Planned Parenthood answers questions concerning virginity and the hymen. Virginity loss is different for everyone, Planned Parenthood stresses—virginity loss is more than penile-vaginal intercourse.
How I use it: Information provided by Planned Parenthood is factual. I use the information to strengthen my definition argument. The carefully sought out information will help persuade readers to side with my argument.
- Jones, J. M. (2021, November 20). LGBT identification rises to 5.6% in latest U.S. estimate. Gallup.com. Retrieved December 3, 2021, from https://news.gallup.com/poll/329708/lgbt-identification-rises-latest-estimate.aspx.
Background: This article from Gallup discusses the rising rates of LGBT adult citizens in America. A nationwide survey, author Jeffrey M. Jones details the rising rates of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Americans— also including the percentage of heterosexual adult Americans, currently.
How I use it: I used only a snippet of information from this article to discuss other sexualities. Other sexualities must be recognized in America since heterosexuality is perceived as the “societal norm.”
- Davidson , N. (1996). Oh Boys! Sex Education and Young Men. Health Education , 96(3). https://doi.org/10.1108/09654289610112385
Background: This short opinion article centers around the notion that sexual education should be more inclusive. Author Neil Davidson argues that “feminist thinking” that has altered sexual education for both men and women— leaving men out of the conversation.
How I Use It: This opinion article was a pivotal piece that contributed to my argument overall. A counterintuitive outlook on sexual education, the author expresses opinions that I previously never thought to considered. I took these collected thoughts and made vocalize Davidson’s opinions when writing my research paper.
- Eyre, L. (1993). Compulsory heterosexuality in a university classroom. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(3), 273–284.
Background: This academic article focuses its attention on the common practice of teaching students that heterosexuality is the norm in society. Author of this article, Linda Eyre claims that gay and lesbian students, teachers, and minorities are left out of the equation— excluded in what society views as “normal.”
How I use it: This article advocates for a change in society’s understanding of “normal.” This article is benefited my research paper greatly because this counterintuitive outlook became a strong point— strengthening my argument overall.