Bibliography – Clevland Brown

(What Is The Average Police Response Time in the US? |  


This article was written by By Matt Halpin he has done research on the average time of arrival by police in a handful of cities. He tells the reader about how the dispatch works  and also how 911 calls are prioitiesed. It says “Priority 1 calls can include some kind of dangerous, in-progress crime that requires immediate response. Or they can be life-threatening injuries where every minute can mean the difference between life or death for the people involved. And lower-priority calls are usually far less urgent and might include things like reporting stolen goods, traffic and parking disputes, and other less dire matters.” 


The reason I choose this as evidence for why police should be in school, is to show the reader that no matter what state your in the police will never be fast enough to save lives. If a shooter is on the scene you want someone already there, as a potential victim you don’t want to have to wait on police and other first responders to come. Because by then it will be too late. 

(School Shootings This Year: How Many and Where (

(Background) This article was written by Education Week. They where talking about how many school shooting have taken place in 2023 alone. And in this year their have been 14 school shootings that have resulted in injuries or death. 


The reason I choose this article was to show readers how often school shooting are taking place in America and how its only going to get worse. It was to grab the readers attention and let them know how important it is we do something now to protect students, our future children and grandchildren.

(High School SRO accused of excessive force in incident captured on video |


Written by Shiina Lciuto, this story is about an officer who used excessive force on a student. The officer is being sued and is accused of violating the students right of expression and is also accused of targeting the student. 


The reason I choose this is to show the reader that I know there can be flaws with having police in school. It was also to show how my system will prevent actions like that from happening again. 

(Facts About Armed Guards in Schools Statistics – Safe and Sound Security (


Written by Zara Gul, this article talks about why we need police in school and why its important. Also lets us as readers know that its important to know that having  security doen’t mean that they are armed. It says 43% of schools that have security in their schools already and how in 2009 to 2010 12% of schools had armed security guards, but it decreased overtime. 


The reason I choose this is to show the reader that some school have thought about the idea. It’s unclear why the number of armed guards had decreased overtime, but its time that schools bring that system back.

(School Shooting Tracker: Counting school shootings since 2013 (


Written by NBC news this is another school shooting stastistic but dates back to 2013 to now and “Since 2013, 110 people have been killed and 163 injured by gunfire in 58 school shootings, according to a school shooting tracker NBC News is making public. As of April 24, 2023, it has been 28 days since the last school shooting.” 


I did this to show the reader that this has been happening for a long time and the last even wasn’t even a month ago.

(What research shows about police in schools – Chalkbeat).


This article was written by Matt Barnum, it talks about the struggles people have with having police in school. It says that the police will keep the students safe, but will it have a negative impact on students? 


I choose this because it nails my topic right on the head. The system that I set in place will be great for all students. And as a parent would rather have their kid come home rather than be a sitting duck for a gunman. Not every system is perfect but if your kid can feel safe in school then its worth it and the police are doing their job. 

(Heritage High School: Boy taken into custody after Virginia school shooting that left 2 wounded, police say | CNN).


Written by  Artemis Moshtaghian and Sahar Akbarzai, they talk about another student shooting 2 students. He was taken into custody and both students survived. 


This one hit home because this happened miles away from my school and some of my friends knew who the kid was. I also used this because our school has police outside, security inside and a metal detector in both entrances to protect our school and herage doen’t. I used this as an example to show the reader why schools who don’t have police put their students in danger at all times.

(Miah Cerrillo: 11-year-old school shooting survivor called 911, smeared blood on herself, played dead | CNN)|Florida school shooting:

(Background) Written by Nora NeusMelissa Alonso and Claire Colbert.

In this article it talks about an 11-year-old girl who survived a school shooting. She said she covered herself in blood so that the shooter would think she is dead. She ended up surviving that terrible event and told her story on CNN.


The reason I used this story as evidence for why we need police in school is to give the reader a visual of what she and so many other survivors have gone through. I know when I read this story, I had to put myself in her shoes. And she will never forget that day and she may never truly feel safe again, I know I wouldn’t.

(Central Park Five: Crime, Coverage & Settlement (

(Background) This article is about 5 kids who were in central park the same night a woman had gotten raped. The cops found these boys and forced them to make false stories against the other person. And when they went to trail all of them were found guilty and sent to jail. Years later the real rapist came forward and cleared the names of the boys that where there that night.

(Reasoning) I chose this story for two reasons, one was to show why the black community doesn’t trust the police, and the other reason was to show why having police in schools is important. Those kids where too young and didn’t understand their rights. Those officers knew that and took advantage of them and sent them away for a long time. But if we had police in schools to educate kids on what to do if they get stopped or arrested, and they teach them what to say or what not to say. This will keep kids from making the same mistake as the Central Park 5 kids. And those lessons will stick with them for life.

(Keeping Schools Safe: Case Studies and Insights – Google Books)


Written by: Bryain Warnick, Benjamen A. Johnson, and Sam Rocha

In this article they talk about why they don’t think having security in school would work. They say that kids seeing gun and school having metal detectors will cause them to be violent.

(Reasoning) The reason I choose this is that I felt their argument was weak and quite frankly stupid. Violence is already everywhere in our society weather it’s in movies or in the student’s everyday life. And without having the police to protect the schools the students and teachers can be subject to a school shooting.

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