Research Argument Rewrite – krackintheneck

The Whole Picture


All living things need food for survival. Food is an essential part of humans lives, and will continue to be forever. Whether it’s a Snickers candy bar or just an apple, every food has nutrients that will help living things grow and evolve. Food on its own, has evolved from the very beginning. A Granny Smith apple that we all know and love has not been the same size and shape from the beginning of time. Humans have genetically manipulated each and every food without most of the public knowing. This also plays a part in humans evolving. For example, in 3000 B.C. the average height of a man was 5’3 and women were 5′ according to Jared Diamond’s The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Now, worldwide men on average are 5’8-5’9 feet tall while women are 5’3-5’4 feet tall. Nowadays, humans and many other living things are going to need bigger portions of food, and more nutrients to survive. Foods thousands of years ago would not be enough for humans to survive in 2021. Since this is the case, why does the public, overall, look down upon genetically engineering foods? Most of the public are so used to seeing the same foods over and over again that they get accustomed to these foods. They think that is how every food should look. Then once this certain food has a deformity or is just different from what they are accustomed to, they will not eat it. This can be defined as food neophobia, aversion to new foods. As people age they are likely to stop trying new foods and just have the food they were exposed to when they were younger. “As children age, they tend to be less willing to accept new foods,” Elena Faccio states in Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes toward GMOs, Insects and Cultured Meat. If we would have any chance in switching to genetically modified foods, we would need to start giving these foods to younger children. This just shows that people will not even give genetically modified foods a chance because it is different from what they are accustomed to. Neophobia “seems to be a negative predictor of willingness to taste non-traditional ethnic foods,”Faccio states. Food that is genetically modified, does not taste or even look any different from everyday foods. If anything scientists could construct any food and make it tastier or a more appealing shape. They are not looking to change the taste or look of staple foods because they do not want it to look any different. If genetically engineered foods are completely different from what the public are used to, then genetic engineers will have no chance in the public changing to their product.

All foods have been “genetically” modified in any way, shape, or form since the beginning of time. Either most humans have neglected to notice this, or they simply do not know unless a food is labeled “GMO.” In The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception, it states that Brazil is the second biggest producer of GM foods worldwide. Brazil mostly genetically modifies contents in staple foods like soy and maize. In 2003, Brazil passed a regulation stating that “both packaged and bulk products in natura that contain or are produced using GMO above the limit of 1% should be labeled and the consumer should be informed about the gene donor species at the place reserved for ingredient identification.” Meaning the public needs to be notified about what scientists genetically changed to their food. Since every food is “genetically modified” than every food should be labeled accordingly. This will never happen, but it is definitely necessary. However, according to Mariana Piton Hakim, “in 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Showing that this country relies heavily on genetically modified foods. For the most part it seems to be working. Brazil has already adapted and are ready for the future. If any problems arise they will already be able to solve them and move on.

Genetically modified foods has a negative connotation from the public. If it is not because they are scared to try different foods, then it is most likely that they are scared to take risks. Everything has a risk that humans will not know the consequence until later in life, and then we adapt and evolve from those mistakes. Genetically modifying foods are yet to show any signs of risks, so as a human race we need to start moving in their direction. If we start using them soon worldwide, we will find the problems and diagnose them earlier than later. Genetically modified foods are food that have their DNA manipulated in some way to benefit whatever the scientists are looking for. For example, most genetically modified foods/crops have their genetic material modified, so they are pesticide resistant. Most of the public do not know enough about genetically engineered crops/foods because they are neglecting them due to their own beliefs. Genetically modified foods are being looked down upon by the public even though the public knows little to nothing about them. Most do not realize that we are going to have to go in the direction of genetically modified foods for survival in the near future. Humans are eventually going to overpopulate and will not have enough food for survival. Genetically modifying foods will definitely aid in saving the human race. Not to mention they can help the environment and cause less plants to die due to pesticides.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have the ability to change the world. A more in depth definition used in the scientific field can be described as, “organisms whose genetic material has been modified in a way that doesn’t occur in nature under natural conditions of cross-breeding or natural recombination,” according to the article, Genetically Modified Organisms. GMOs have gained a bad reputation towards the majority of the public, when they can provide positive results. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, require less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger. These factors are beneficial to the public in more ways that they could be harmful. GMOs are proven to be non-harmful, illustrating another reason why genetically engineered foods can provide essential changes for the world.

One reason GMOs are beneficial to food production is because they are cost efficient.  According to the National Academy of Science, the World Health Organization, and many other major worldwide science organizations, genetically modified organisms have no evidence that they can be harmful to humans, stated by MedlinePlus. Genetic engineering provides a more cost efficient way to provide food for the public. For starters, they have a longer shelf life. This is beneficial because consumers will not have to worry about their food going bad. This shows that consumers will not need to buy more food, or spend more money. “Farmers will lower herbicides used,” Borie Theis Nielsen said in the article Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.  This could save money for the economy allowing money to be used in more needed areas. The preservation of food would cause a trickle down effect. If grocery stores make less shipments, they would not have to pay for as many shipments. Drivers would make less trips leading to saving more money. There would not be as much gas used or purchased, leading to less usage of fossil fuels. Not only would the economy be saving money, but they would also be saving limited resources. Using this scientific advancement, GMOs can save money without any unwanted consequences. 

Along with being cost efficient, GMOs do not require the use of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that are used on foods to prevent insects, fungi, and weeds from destroying crops, (Stephenson, 2006).  Although this seems like a good idea, it truly is the opposite. Pesticides are toxic to humans and the environment. Side effects may include cancer and damage the human’s reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. Ingesting these toxins at high amounts can be lethal. Pesticides can ultimately pollute the environment by contaminating the soil, water, and even the air. Too many pesticides can harm humans, wildlife, and neighboring lands. There are older pesticides that have been banned around the world. However, these remains linger in the soils and water for many years. Instead of using pesticides to increase yields, scientists can use GMOs to safely protect crops for these pests. Developing countries are already experiencing deaths from pesticides. They are one of the leading causes of death. If countries continue to use pesticides, they have the ability to end the human race. 

Solving world hunger may seem like an unattainable goal, but GMOs have the potential to end this catastrophe. People that suffer from hunger, also face malnutrition. Malnutrition directly correlates with Vitamin-A deficiency. Currently, there are 140 million children that are deficient in Vitamin-A. A portion of these children become blind and die within 12 months of losing their sight, stated by Jamil Kaiser. In order to solve this problem, scientists have begun using biotechnology to create Genetically Modified rice, also known as Golden Rice. These biotechnicians have inserted three new genes into rice that help it produce pro Vitamin-A. Kaiser believes that golden rice has the potential to save many lives including these children.

GMOs were mainly created to fight disease, resist pests, improve health, provide an easier way to produce crops, and finally give humans animals and crops the nutrients needed for survival. The public have been fighting whether or not molecular genetically modified organisms are safe for the public to consume. Most of the public does not know the true benefits genetically modified organisms have on the environment and the whole world. However, the biggest downside to genetically modified foods and organisms is the unknowingness of their side affects. They have yet to be truly diagnosed to be a negative thing. Most of the public think genetically modified foods can be detrimental to their health, and cause major pollution. Genetically modified foods are not perfect, but they would not be even considered if it caused humans or crops to die. According to Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe, author  Stefaan Blancke states that genetically engineered foods are safe to eat and benefit the environment. Genetically modified organisms go through a 7-10 year testing period where they are checked for risks against humans, livestock, wildlife, and the environment stated by the Battelle staff in Five Good Reasons to Support GMOs. Scientists observe any new proteins created by the GMOs that could allergic reactions. Battelle states that “GM food production are among the most tested products in history.” Genetically modified organisms are kept under a microscope until they are completely ready to be released to the public. There are lots of protocols genetically modified foods and organisms need to go through that most of the public are unaware of.

Genetically modified organisms can provide the environment with a ton of beneficial factors. Genetically engineered crops allow farmers to use less pesticides saving their precious crops. Less chemicals used on crops the better. “On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%,” taken from from the article A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. This is a substantial benefit that GM crops provide.

A common fallacy associated with GMOs is that they have less nutrients than the normal food. This viewpoint argues that GMOs create larger foods resulting in less vitamins and minerals. However, genetically modified organisms have not been proven to have less nutrients. Instead, specific foods are designed to contain extra nutrients. According to research done by Kennedy, “a modified form of  African corn contains 169 times more beta-carotene than traditional crops”. Along with this benefit, the African corn has six times the amount of Vitamin C than staple foods. This example shows how much of an impact GMOs have on nutrition. Inserting more nutrients into foods may allow for people suffering from hunger to get more vitamins and minerals with a smaller portion. These nutritional benefits may help people suffering from deficiencies around the world. Adding these extra nutrients can allow crops in underdeveloped countries to provide the essential qualities they may not get from the foods they grow nearby.

GM crops undergo tons of tests and provide a substantial amount of benefit to our environment. The public as a whole may not even understand the true power genetically modified organisms can provide. Society does not want to take any risks with GMOs because they do not know the long lasting affects they might have. This is another huge disadvantage that modified crops provide. However, its benefits outweighs the disadvantages. Plus, these disadvantages are not proven to be hurting us or our environment. It’s hard to believe that we have had molecular genetically engineered crops for so long and it has not caused a true problem. These companies providing GM foods and crops are going to be the future of foods. Eventually, the world will overpopulate leading to more of a food drought leading to deaths of lots of our livestock and will cause a trickle down affect in our society. It may be a high risk to start turning completely over to the genetic engineers rather than our staple “non GMO” foods, but every food has been modified in some sort of way. If everything the government had companies labeling absolutely everything that has been genetically modified in past, then we would be seeing everything in stores labeled as, “GM foods.” It may seem unreal for most of the public to look at it in this sort of way, but it needs to be done, so society can move closer towards saving the world and economy. We have taken risks before to better our survival fitness than what is the difference? The true difference is that we have evolved as a society and humans began to develop controversy over different things rather than look at the bigger picture. The world is beginning to change and everyone as a whole society needs to evolve and change with it.

GMOs are a cost efficient way to reduce the use of pesticides, and can potentially end world hunger. This is a huge benefit to society, and can change the world. Using GMOs would allow for less expensive labor in production and pesticide dispersion. Not only do these modifications cost less money, but they also provide food for people in need. Genetically modified organisms open a ton of doors into the future, which can better food production as a whole. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, use less pesticides, and have the possibility of helping to provide food for the world.

References

Blancke, S. (2015, August 18). Why people oppose gmos even though science says they are safe. Scientific American. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-people-oppose-gmos-even-though-science-says-they-are-safe/

Five good reasons to support gmos. Inside Battelle. (2021, October 21). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://inside.battelle.org/blog-details/five-good-reasons-to-support-gmos?keyword_session_id=vt~adwords%7Ckt~%7Cmt~%7Cta~496274902983&_vsrefdom=wordstream&gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzrdyN2I-4OClwQryUYRgIkQ_o2Me4MpiniT9FsA4AfL8FdLCdSdNDEaApC3EALw_wcB

Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (n.d.). A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLOS ONE. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629

Viewpoint: GMO crops are key to sustainable farming-why are some scientists afraid to talk about them? Genetic Literacy Project. (2019, January 24). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/01/21/viewpoint-gmo-crops-are-key-to-sustainable-farming-why-are-some-scientists-afraid-to-talk-about-them/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzqNpBP52pa93XYPG1E3w70zgggtT5vam2dGJRVz09XiMDYt9HtWHRMaAqpfEALw_wcB

Faccio, E., & Guiotto Nai Fovino, L. (2019, October 19). Food neophobia or distrust of novelties? exploring consumers’ attitudes toward gmos, insects and cultured meat. MDPI. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440.

Hakim, M. P., Zanetta, L. D. A., Oliveira, J. M. de, & Cunha, D. T. da. (2020, February 1). The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception. Food Research International. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788.

Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

A.D.A.M. “Genetically Engineered Foods.” MedlinePlus (2021).

UDRISTE, Anca Amalia, and Liliana BADULESCU. “Genetically modified organisms.” Research Journal of Agricultural Science 49.4 (2017).

Borie, Colin, Hugo Hello, and Thomas Theis Nielsen. “Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.”

Jamil, Kaiser. “Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?” United Nations, United Nations, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger

M. Kennedy. “Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO Foods.” Insider Health (2020). 

Stephenson, Gerald R., et al. “Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006).” Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.11 (2006).

Posted in KrackInTheNeck, Research FA21, You Forgot to Categorize! | Leave a comment

Rebuttal Argument – krackintheneck

GMO Common Fallacies

GMOs were mainly created to fight disease, resist pests, improve health, provide an easier way to produce crops, and finally give humans animals and crops the nutrients needed for survival. The public have been fighting whether or not molecular genetically modified organisms are safe for the public to consume. Most of the public does not know the true benefits genetically modified organisms have on the environment and the whole world. However, the biggest downside to genetically modified foods and organisms is the unknowingness of their side affects. They have yet to be truly diagnosed to be a negative thing. Most of the public think genetically modified foods can be detrimental to their health, and cause major pollution. Genetically modified foods are not perfect, but they would not be even considered if it caused humans or crops to die. According to Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe, author  Stefaan Blancke states that genetically engineered foods are safe to eat and benefit the environment. Genetically modified organisms go through a 7-10 year testing period where they are checked for risks against humans, livestock, wildlife, and the environment stated by the Battelle staff in Five Good Reasons to Support GMOs. Scientists observe any new proteins created by the GMOs that could allergic reactions. Battelle states that “GM food production are among the most tested products in history.” Genetically modified organisms are kept under a microscope until they are completely ready to be released to the public. There are lots of protocols genetically modified foods and organisms need to go through that most of the public are unaware of.

Genetically modified organisms can provide the environment with a ton of beneficial factors. Genetically engineered crops allow farmers to use less pesticides saving their precious crops. Less chemicals used on crops the better. “On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%,” taken from from the article A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. This is a substantial benefit that GM crops provide.

GM crops undergo tons of tests and provide a substantial amount of benefit to our environment. The public as a whole may not even understand the true power genetically modified organisms can provide. Society does not want to take any risks with GMOs because they do not know the long lasting affects they might have. This is another huge disadvantage that modified crops provide. However, its benefits outweighs the disadvantages. Plus, these disadvantages are not proven to be hurting us or our environment. It’s hard to believe that we have had molecular genetically engineered crops for so long and it has not caused a true problem. These companies providing GM foods and crops are going to be the future of foods. Eventually, the world will overpopulate leading to more of a food drought leading to deaths of lots of our livestock and will cause a trickle down affect in our society. It may be a high risk to start turning completely over to the genetic engineers rather than our staple “non GMO” foods, but every food has been modified in some sort of way. If everything the government had companies labeling absolutely everything that has been genetically modified in past, then we would be seeing everything in stores labeled as, “GM foods.” It may seem unreal for most of the public to look at it in this sort of way, but it needs to be done, so society can move closer towards saving the world and economy. We have taken risks before to better our survival fitness than what is the difference? The true difference is that we have evolved as a society and humans began to develop controversy over different things rather than look at the bigger picture. The world is beginning to change and everyone as a whole society needs to evolve and change with it.

References

Blancke, S. (2015, August 18). Why people oppose gmos even though science says they are safe. Scientific American. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-people-oppose-gmos-even-though-science-says-they-are-safe/

Five good reasons to support gmos. Inside Battelle. (2021, October 21). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://inside.battelle.org/blog-details/five-good-reasons-to-support-gmos?keyword_session_id=vt~adwords%7Ckt~%7Cmt~%7Cta~496274902983&_vsrefdom=wordstream&gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzrdyN2I-4OClwQryUYRgIkQ_o2Me4MpiniT9FsA4AfL8FdLCdSdNDEaApC3EALw_wcB

Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (n.d.). A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLOS ONE. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629

Viewpoint: GMO crops are key to sustainable farming-why are some scientists afraid to talk about them? Genetic Literacy Project. (2019, January 24). Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/01/21/viewpoint-gmo-crops-are-key-to-sustainable-farming-why-are-some-scientists-afraid-to-talk-about-them/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAnuGNBhCPARIsACbnLzqNpBP52pa93XYPG1E3w70zgggtT5vam2dGJRVz09XiMDYt9HtWHRMaAqpfEALw_wcB

Posted in KrackInTheNeck, Rebuttal Argument FA21, You Forgot to Categorize! | Leave a comment

Self-Reflective Statement – mossmacabre

    I didn’t know if it would be possible for me to complete a reflection statement as assigned due to my particular circumstances this semester. I thought I would give it my best shot in a slightly different format (understandable if you end up deducting points).

    In this class, I learned the importance of using clear, concise language in my writing. Good writing is not padded with fancy words to meet any kind of word count. You should be able to get your point across without using unnecessary filler words. I learned the importance of using sourced facts to genuinely get my point across in a convincing manner. I learned the way a certain word or inflection can completely change the meaning of a sentence, and therefore make your writing unclear to your audience. I learned the importance of setting a schedule for yourself and following it when it comes to writing and completing schoolwork. With feedback, my writing has improved and become not only more authentic, but better structured as well. I was able to improve my writing in a learning environment that was conducive to my writing style. With better knowledge of each type of argument, I was able to construct a well-made argument for the portfolio of this class.

Posted in Graded Portfolio MossMacabre, mossmacabre, Reflective FA21 | Leave a comment

Research Argument – krackintheneck

All living things need food for survival. Food is an essential part of humans lives, and will continue to be forever. Whether it’s a Snickers candy bar or just an apple, every food has nutrients that will help living things grow and evolve. Food on its own, has evolved from the very beginning. A Granny Smith apple that we all know and love has not been the same size and shape from the beginning of time. Humans have genetically manipulated each and every food without most of the public knowing. This also plays a part in humans evolving. For example, in 3000 B.C. the average height of a man was 5’3 and women were 5′ according to Jared Diamond’s The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Now, worldwide men on average are 5’8-5’9 feet tall while women are 5’3-5’4 feet tall. Nowadays, humans and many other living things are going to need bigger portions of food, and more nutrients to survive. Foods thousands of years ago would not be enough for humans to survive in 2021. Since this is the case, why does the public, overall, look down upon genetically engineering foods? Most of the public are so used to seeing the same foods over and over again that they get accustomed to these foods. They think that is how every food should look. Then once this certain food has a deformity or is just different from what they are accustomed to, they will not eat it. This can be defined as food neophobia, aversion to new foods. As people age they are likely to stop trying new foods and just have the food they were exposed to when they were younger. “As children age, they tend to be less willing to accept new foods,” Elena Faccio states in Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes toward GMOs, Insects and Cultured Meat. If we would have any chance in switching to genetically modified foods, we would need to start giving these foods to younger children. This just shows that people will not even give genetically modified foods a chance because it is different from what they are accustomed to. Neophobia “seems to be a negative predictor of willingness to taste non-traditional ethnic foods,”Faccio states. Food that is genetically modified, does not taste or even look any different from everyday foods. If anything scientists could construct any food and make it tastier or a more appealing shape. They are not looking to change the taste or look of staple foods because they do not want it to look any different. If genetically engineered foods are completely different from what the public are used to, then genetic engineers will have no chance in the public changing to their product.

All foods have been “genetically” modified in any way, shape, or form since the beginning of time. Either most humans have neglected to notice this, or they simply do not know unless a food is labeled “GMO.” In The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception, it states that Brazil is the second biggest producer of GM foods worldwide. Brazil mostly genetically modifies contents in staple foods like soy and maize. In 2003, Brazil passed a regulation stating that “both packaged and bulk products in natura that contain or are produced using GMO above the limit of 1% should be labeled and the consumer should be informed about the gene donor species at the place reserved for ingredient identification.” Meaning the public needs to be notified about what scientists genetically changed to their food. Since every food is “genetically modified” than every food should be labeled accordingly. This will never happen, but it is definitely necessary. However, according to Mariana Piton Hakim, “in 2018, soy production was valued at 120 billion Brazilian Reais, while maize production amounted to 40 billion Brazilian Reais.” Showing that this country relies heavily on genetically modified foods. For the most part it seems to be working. Brazil has already adapted and are ready for the future. If any problems arise they will already be able to solve them and move on.

Genetically modified foods has a negative connotation from the public. If it is not because they are scared to try different foods, then it is most likely that they are scared to take risks. Everything has a risk that humans will not know the consequence until later in life, and then we adapt and evolve from those mistakes. Genetically modifying foods are yet to show any signs of risks, so as a human race we need to start moving in their direction. If we start using them soon worldwide, we will find the problems and diagnose them earlier than later. Genetically modified foods are food that have their DNA manipulated in some way to benefit whatever the scientists are looking for. For example, most genetically modified foods/crops have their genetic material modified, so they are pesticide resistant. Most of the public do not know enough about genetically engineered crops/foods because they are neglecting them due to their own beliefs. Genetically modified foods are being looked down upon by the public even though the public knows little to nothing about them. Most do not realize that we are going to have to go in the direction of genetically modified foods for survival in the near future. Humans are eventually going to overpopulate and will not have enough food for survival. Genetically modifying foods will definitely aid in saving the human race. Not to mention they can help the environment and cause less plants to die due to pesticides.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have the ability to change the world. A more in depth definition used in the scientific field can be described as, “organisms whose genetic material has been modified in a way that doesn’t occur in nature under natural conditions of cross-breeding or natural recombination,” according to the article, Genetically Modified Organisms. GMOs have gained a bad reputation towards the majority of the public, when they can provide positive results. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, require less pesticides, and have the possibility of ending world hunger. These factors are beneficial to the public in more ways that they could be harmful. GMOs are proven to be non-harmful, illustrating another reason why genetically engineered foods can provide essential changes for the world.

One reason GMOs are beneficial to food production is because they are cost efficient.  According to the National Academy of Science, the World Health Organization, and many other major worldwide science organizations, genetically modified organisms have no evidence that they can be harmful to humans, stated by MedlinePlus. Genetic engineering provides a more cost efficient way to provide food for the public. For starters, they have a longer shelf life. This is beneficial because consumers will not have to worry about their food going bad. This shows that consumers will not need to buy more food, or spend more money. “Farmers will lower herbicides used,” Borie Theis Nielsen said in the article Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.  This could save money for the economy allowing money to be used in more needed areas. The preservation of food would cause a trickle down effect. If grocery stores make less shipments, they would not have to pay for as many shipments. Drivers would make less trips leading to saving more money. There would not be as much gas used or purchased, leading to less usage of fossil fuels. Not only would the economy be saving money, but they would also be saving limited resources. Using this scientific advancement, GMOs can save money without any unwanted consequences. 

Along with being cost efficient, GMOs do not require the use of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that are used on foods to prevent insects, fungi, and weeds from destroying crops, (Stephenson, 2006).  Although this seems like a good idea, it truly is the opposite. Pesticides are toxic to humans and the environment. Side effects may include cancer and damage the human’s reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. Ingesting these toxins at high amounts can be lethal. Pesticides can ultimately pollute the environment by contaminating the soil, water, and even the air. Too many pesticides can harm humans, wildlife, and neighboring lands. There are older pesticides that have been banned around the world. However, these remains linger in the soils and water for many years. Instead of using pesticides to increase yields, scientists can use GMOs to safely protect crops for these pests. Developing countries are already experiencing deaths from pesticides. They are one of the leading causes of death. If countries continue to use pesticides, they have the ability to end the human race. 

Solving world hunger may seem like an unattainable goal, but GMOs have the potential to end this catastrophe. People that suffer from hunger, also face malnutrition. Malnutrition directly correlates with Vitamin-A deficiency. Currently, there are 140 million children that are deficient in Vitamin-A. A portion of these children become blind and die within 12 months of losing their sight, stated by Jamil Kaiser. In order to solve this problem, scientists have begun using biotechnology to create Genetically Modified rice, also known as Golden Rice. These biotechnicians have inserted three new genes into rice that help it produce pro Vitamin-A. Kaiser believes that golden rice has the potential to save many lives including these children.

A common fallacy associated with GMOs is that they have less nutrients than the normal food. This viewpoint argues that GMOs create larger foods resulting in less vitamins and minerals. However, genetically modified organisms have not been proven to have less nutrients. Instead, specific foods are designed to contain extra nutrients. According to research done by Kennedy, “a modified form of  African corn contains 169 times more beta-carotene than traditional crops”. Along with this benefit, the African corn has six times the amount of Vitamin C than staple foods. This example shows how much of an impact GMOs have on nutrition. Inserting more nutrients into foods may allow for people suffering from hunger to get more vitamins and minerals with a smaller portion. These nutritional benefits may help people suffering from deficiencies around the world. Adding these extra nutrients can allow crops in underdeveloped countries to provide the essential qualities they may not get from the foods they grow nearby. 

GMOs are a cost efficient way to reduce the use of pesticides, and can potentially end world hunger. This is a huge benefit to society, and can change the world. Using GMOs would allow for less expensive labor in production and pesticide dispersion. Not only do these modifications cost less money, but they also provide food for people in need. Genetically modified organisms open a ton of doors into the future, which can better food production as a whole. GMOs should be allowed in food production because they are cost efficient, use less pesticides, and have the possibility of helping to provide food for the world.

References

Faccio, E., & Guiotto Nai Fovino, L. (2019, October 19). Food neophobia or distrust of novelties? exploring consumers’ attitudes toward gmos, insects and cultured meat. MDPI. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/20/4440.

Hakim, M. P., Zanetta, L. D. A., Oliveira, J. M. de, & Cunha, D. T. da. (2020, February 1). The mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods in Brazil: Consumer’s knowledge, trust, and risk perception. Food Research International. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996920300788.

Must-read: Jared Diamond: Agriculture: The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Equitable Growth. (2016, June 28). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from https://equitablegrowth.org/must-read-jared-diamond-agriculture-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race/.

A.D.A.M. “Genetically Engineered Foods.” MedlinePlus (2021).

UDRISTE, Anca Amalia, and Liliana BADULESCU. “Genetically modified organisms.” Research Journal of Agricultural Science 49.4 (2017).

Borie, Colin, Hugo Hello, and Thomas Theis Nielsen. “Genetically Modified Organisms and World Hunger.”

Jamil, Kaiser. “Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?” United Nations, United Nations, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger

M. Kennedy. “Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO Foods.” Insider Health (2020). 

Stephenson, Gerald R., et al. “Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006).” Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.11 (2006).

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Visual Rewrite

What Influenza Looks Like

In the first second the viewer see a man in suit looking at something. Through his facial expressions the viewer can tell he is surprised by something. The surprise is not a good surprise though as he does not look happy in his expression. In his surroundings, he seems to be in attendance of an formal party, a wedding perhaps. The guests are inside a thermal tent implying that the weather outside is cold. In the bottom left of the frame the mans arm is holding something. The viewer can guess he is holding whatever it is that he is surprised about. The viewer can also tell that its night time based on the lighting inside and outside the tent.

In the next second the people in the background can be seen dancing and singing. This implies that they are celebrating something. The man is speaking to something in his hand, with a empathetic facial expression as he is speaking. The frame flips to the a girl in bed. She is holding a phone which confirms with the viewer that the man at the party was on a phone call with this girl. The girl looks like she’s suffering in bed. Due to the amount of blankets and the sick expression on her face the viewer can assume she is ill. Putting this together with the empathetic facial expression from the man at the party, the viewer can assume she is not at the part because she is ill. If originally she was intending to go we can assume she is either related to the man, a friend of the man, or in a relationship with the man. The girl looks like she’s in a pretty standard bed showing she has the money to afford such bed. The man also has the money to afford attending such a part with the formal wear he had.

From the 3rd to 5th second the frame changes to the view of girls phone. As assumed she is on the phone with the man at the party. Behind the phone the viewer can see her desk, which has 4 or 5 different bottles of bills on it. This may imply she has more than just a common illness. Along with that the viewer can see a framed picture of what looks like her and someone else. The man on the phone maybe. The man on the phone still looks like he feels really bad for her.

From the 5th to 9th second the frame changes back to the man. The other guests come up behind them and wave hi to the girl on the other side of the phone. This confirms that they are indeed at a party and are all familiar with each other. They probably miss the ill girl just as much as the man does. After they wave in pans back to the girl as she coughs into some tissues, confirming that she is most definitely sick.

From the 9th to 11th second another woman walks in and begins speaking to the girl in bed. She looks somewhat disappointed or irritated. Her hand motions also imply this. Did the girl do something to upset her? This second woman looks about the same age as the girl in bed and they look similar so they could be sisters,

From the 11th to the 16th second the girl in bed looks again very sick, then she seems to be apologizing to the other woman in the room with her. She also hung up the phone on the man at the party. Maybe the woman that came in did not like the fact that she was on the phone when she should has been recovering from her sickness. A text field than appears that reads in Spanish “Otro case de influenza” or “another case of the flu”. The girl in bed is sick with the flu. In the 19th second pans to an image of another woman in the doctors office receiving a shot. The viewer can assume from the previous 19 seconds that this a flu shot.

From the 23rd second to the end we see a clip of the previously sick girl now getting ready to go somewhere. She’s dressing up nicely with somebody helping her. Her attire and excited facial expression implies she’s going somewhere fun. This is where the video ends. The ending of the add may be the sick girl in the case where she got her flu shot and was able to attend the party where the man was. Through visuals alone, the ad effectively gets the point across that its endorsing the flu shot.

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Definition Rewrite – chickendinner

A Brief History of Money

Money: everyone wants it. Whenever a purchase occurs, the buyer acts in belief the product will provide more benefit than the money spent, and that it does not cost more than it would somewhere else or, depending on urgency, after some time. Money is a massive factor in everyone’s choice of career, save ascetics and the exceedingly rich, and influences our decisions about our living arrangements, our eating habits, our leisure, our transportation, etc. It’s little wonder why people obsess over money; we need it to buy all our comforts and needs. Yet, for all the time so many people spend thinking about money, very little is spent on what distinguishes money from other goods, or how money might be categorized.

In economies without money, trade is reliant on the barter system, with goods and services directly exchanged for one another. For example, if a cow farmer’s roof needed repair, the farmer might offer a carpenter 3 gallons of milk for the task. The obvious flaw in this system is that a lactose intolerant carpenter would need to trade milk to a third party, who would take it in exchange for whatever the carpenter wants. And they, too, might not like milk, passing it on to fourth person, and so on. Such a system greatly restricts the scale at which an economy can operate. “Having to find specific people to trade with,” writes Irena Asmundson in Finance and Development, “makes it very difficult to specialize.” And it is only in an economy with a high degree of specialization and resultant technological advancement where such a system could overcome the hinderance presented by the need for mutual benefit from trade.

Money is a commonly-agreed upon medium of exchange: the means by which a society evolves past the need for barter. Unlike other goods, which derive their value from their use to satisfy a need or create something that can, money’s value comes from the fact that it is agreed to have value. Reliable money is easily quantified into units with a steady commonly-accepted value. Money should also function as a store of value, retaining its value so that it can be tradeable for as long as possible; something like milk is not useful because of this, whereas stones or metals are. Metals, particularly gold and silver, did become recognized in many civilizations as the best form of money. This is because, as Asmundson writes, “precious metals seemed to serve all three needs (of money): a stable unit of account, a durable store of value, and a convenient medium of exchange.”

Today, gold and silver no longer dominate as the preferred medium of exchange; they were replaced by paper bills. The substitution of dollar bills for precious metals was a gradual process, beginning with a system designed to overcome one of the most apparent troubles of metal currency: its weight. For a fee, banks would let people deposit some of their gold in exchange for papers certifying ownership of the gold deposited. The depositor could then use these bank notes as money, since it was understood that it could be exchanged for gold at any time. This system owed its success to the fact that money’s value is not dependent on physical access, unlike most other goods. Gradually, these notes overtook gold coin as the primary money. In America, this process concluded in the 1970s, when the dollar was completely taken off the gold standard.

This is an example of a transition from a metal currency to a fiat currency, a currency not bound to any resource but instead valued based on trust that it will continue to be valued, with its supply determined entirely by the will of the state, or, as is the case in many countries like the US, a central bank with complete power over the money supply granted by the state. As the supply of a fiat money is not bound to a scarce resource, there are no restraints on the supply; not even the money printers running out of paper and ink is a restriction, as most fiat money is kept not in paper bills, but in accounts, which are written down or digital. This transition is driven by the desire of politicians and bankers for a money supply which can be expanded as conditions require; previously, the only way for the money supply to be expanded was fractional reserve banking, where banks lent out the money of depositors to borrowers while still having the money in the depositors’ accounts. This was risky, because if too many depositors suspected the bank didn’t have their money, there would be a “bank run;” depositors would rush to withdraw more cash from a bank than the bank actually had.

The proliferation of computers has made paper currency obsolete in most transactions beyond purchasing lunch from a food truck or tipping a resturaunt employee. Most purchases now take place through debit or credit cards, websites, and mobile phone apps. Technological advancement has also made possible the rise of cryptocurrencies. As Andrey Sergeenkov explains in CoinDesk, a cryptocurrency is an entirely digital currency, with the supply not centrally controlled like fiat money’s, and with all transactions encrypted. Transactions take place over a digital ledger called a blockchain that archives every transaction that has ever taken place with a given cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrencies garnered attention over the past decade, with many people viewing them as a viable alternative to fiat money for a number of reasons; Sergeenkov writes that cryptocurrencies are faster and less expensive for international trades, do not require a bank to intermediate transactions, and some have supply caps to prevent depreciation.

Though what form currency takes and how it’ll be supplied will remain a matter of discussion, it is certain that money will continue to evolve to serve the need for an effective store of value which can effectively be transferred between parties, as our understanding of how currency should operate to best serve as a medium of exchange evolves.

References

Asmundson, I. Oner, C. 2012. What Is Money? Finance and Development, Vol. 49, No. 3, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2012/09/basics.htm

Sergeenkov, A. 2021. What is Cryptocurrency. CoinDesk. https://www.coindesk.com/learn/what-is-cryptocurrency/

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Research – LunaDuna

The Ethical Dilemma Behind Animal Experimentation

Animal experimentation has been around for numerous years and has always been a controversial topic. The two sides of this debate are the ones who believe that animal testing is beneficial and will save lives, which is true. On the other hand, animal testing has is ethically wrong and is not accurate to the genetics of humans. Animal testing has been marked as inadequate by Cambridge. Their studies suggest that an animal’s behavior may be influencing the end result of the experiment. Such as being in an enclosed space could cause distress and even abnormal behaviors within a certain animal. The choice to carry out animal experimentation does not have a correct answer and will never have one.

The main debate of animal experimentations begins at the thought of the tests being cruel and inhumane. Commonly, in animal research, the subjects are treated to force-feedings, lack of water or food, and even infliction to pain such as burns from the chemicals. (These burns are usually to test the healing process.) Every year nearly 100 million animals are subjected to harm during animal testing. In today’s world, the United States has the technology to do innovative research, but they still go back to the barbaric use of animal experimentation. The use of animal experimentation usually leads to the animals being crippled, burned, and even poisoned. Animal testing has been a popular controversial topic and is shown to be cruel. Animal experimentation has been around for many years and has served a variety of purposes in society.

Additionally, millions of animals that are used in experiments are discarded, like trash. The National Institute of Health (NIH) reported that just in eighteen months, from the years 2011 to 2013, over 1.5 million pounds of animals were placed in waste collection. The animal waste is extremely dangerous to human health because the waste is contaminated with the chemicals, and even infectious diseases/viruses used in past experiments. Some companies disagree with discarding the waste by incinerating the animals’ corpses, but that leads to emitting gases into the air.

“The New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) reported that: “a recent study found that 2.1 million deaths have been associated with human-produced fine particulate matter – a main component of smog” 

Animal experimentation is an expensive use of study. Some animal experiments could take up to months and even years to perform and analyze. The cost alone would be an insane amount due to the time of the study. For example, it takes almost a whole decade with 3,000,000 dollars to complete an entire experiment while abiding by all the laws. At the end of the experiment, it only would register one single pesticide to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluating each of the chemicals can take up to millions of dollars, and many years to complete an experiment. Also, companies can lose a ton of money if the tests do not account for how humans would correctly respond to the treatments. Fewer than 10 percent of potential drugs make it to the human trials. According to the Humane Society, drug companies spend an average of four billion dollars to fully develop a new kind of drug. And if that drug fails, then billions of dollars went down the drain. So why waste the time? Because maybe it can help the lives of humans.

Humans and animals are not exactly the same. Many drugs that can appear safe and effective in animals may not be the same with humans. The drugs could cause significant harm or even death. In 2004, a study was conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration that 95 percent of drug trials in animals failed to reach clinical trials in humans. Of the ones that are approved, more than half are withdrawn due to serve lethal effects that were not detected in the animal experiments. Thalidomide, a sleeping pill, was introduced in the 1950s, which resulted in about 10,000 babies being born with deformities. The pill was examined by animals first, but the experiment did not show the symptoms in animals as it did in humans. Thusly, concluding that animals should not be reliable to human health.

Replacing animals used in experimentation would improve the quality and the humanity of science and health. Technology has been growing for years, and new non-animal methods have been developed. Types of non-animal methods include cell cultures, human tissues, volunteer studies, and computer models. Scientists have managed to grow 3D cell structures, that can even behave as miniature organs. These structures provide a more realistic way to test new therapies, which can also be more accurate than animals. Cells have been used to create innovative devices that can accurately mimic the heart, lungs, kidney, and even gut. Cell cultures have already been in key developments in areas such as sepsis, kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS. Human tissues are another way to study the human physiology. Human tissues can be donated from surgery such as biopsies and transplantsUsing human tissues can replace the cruel tests that animals have to face and will prevent the study passing false information. The Humane Society also advocates the comparison between using human replications from animal tests.

“The expensive and time-consuming two-year rat study to assess whether a substance is cancerous to humans is only able to predict human cancer 42% of the time. A cell-based test (CTA), which has been in use for over 50 years, can predict 90% of known human carcinogens.”

Ultimately, animal experimentation is a complex subject. Many people can deliver different opinions of the subject matter, which none of them could be the “correct” answer. Animal experimentation has given light on human health but also affects the lives of animals. The facts about animal testing are clear, millions of animals lose their lives for the sake of human health, but is that really worth all the death? Using alternative methods can save the lives of animals and improve the accuracy of the tests run for human health.

The case of animal experimentation begins with the benefits for humanity, but is it morally acceptable to harm animals? From the beginning of science, the method of animal testing has always been in medical studies. However, today, people do not seem to agree with the continuation of the experiments. The true horror of animal experimentation has leaked out into the world, finally receiving some backlash. The feeling of being locked up in a cage for hours poked and prodded, these animals have to live with this for their whole lives because of us, humans. Animal experimentation in its true nature has not been as effective as the population believes.

Nobody knows the actual number of beneficial pharmaceutical drugs, due to the fact that they are never released because of the harmful effect they had on the animals. Drugs such as aspirin, penicillin, and ibuprofen had negative impacts on animals, but have been seen to improve human health. These drugs many years ago would have failed the experiments because of the difference in metabolic processes between species. The use of an invalid animal disease model can lead scientists and researchers in the wrong direction. Which can waste valuable time, and even money. Time after time scientists has been led down the wrong path from information received after the experiments on animals. After these scientists do their experiments, which sometimes can last for years, results proven to be inaccurate to human physiology.

Animal studies have been known not to be completely reliable to human health. There is a difference in physiology from animals to humans. Humans and mice are not the same. The genetic makeup between animals and humans is different, so the effect on medications will be independent. Although scientists have found an animal model that almost mirrors the human body, there still are some major differences between the mechanisms. Humans continue to be harmed because of the misleading information of the results of animal testing. Exposing humans to these risks is completely unnecessary. Many clinical trial patients have been provided false hope in the effectiveness and safety of animal testing.

In fact, the number one reason for abandoning promising drugs is caused by misleading animal tests. There have been innumerable amounts of studies that have proven drugs causing serious health problems in humans. The Food Drug Administration (FDA) had to remove many products off the shelf, even though these drugs have passed animal testing. Of every 5,000-10,000 potential drugs passed, only about 5 of them go through human clinical trials. Numerous drugs are abandoned because of the results in animal experimentation that do not apply to human health. As noted in the article, “The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation,” by Aysha Akhtar,

 The National Institutes of Health reports that nearly 95 out of every 100 drugs that were tested on animals fail in humans.

Testing drugs or chemicals on live animals is expensive and time-consuming. More than 16 million dollars of taxpayer money is spent on animal experimentation in the United States each year, and more than half of this money is wasted. Nine out of ten drugs fail to enter clinical trials because we cannot predict how they will act within people. Animal experimentation wastes a significant amount of time and money, more importantly, animal lives. In 2004, Maria Palondi notes that Pfizer reported that these experiments had wasted more than two billion U.S dollars over the past ten years on drugs that have failed.

The federal government does not provide funding for some medical procedures because a significant number of people object to them. Then why does the federal government provide funding for laboratory experiments involving animals?

The opportunity to find an alternative to medicine is impeded because of the people’s belief that animals are still needed. Even if animals could impact human health, the greater question to ask is how this data can be applied to humans, considering the variability within the human species. Such as genetic, diet, lifestyles, and even environmental differences.

A notable experiment to remember has to do with the polio vaccine. Scientists have tried inflicting the diseases into primates over decades but failed to get anywhere. The key reason the vaccine was invented was not about the animals, rather humans, human cells. The poliovirus was injected into human cell cultures, which then grew into the vaccine known today.

Finding an alternative for animal testing can benefit human health, cost, time, and the lives of animals. Computer modeling is a lightning-fast technology, which can be used to create human-like cells, vitro. This method lowers the cost and without wasting energy on false information. Researchers from the University of Oxford have already begun using computer simulation to perform drug trials, such as testing arrhythmia. The research had already won an international prize for its efforts to replace animal experimentation. The group is now working on larger more intricate computer models to build a virtual human, that can completely take over the animal testing world.

Animal experimentation will continue to be a constant debate in the world. There will always be two sides, one for and one against. Health professionals believe that animal experimentation can help save the lives of many people, but the cost is the animal’s life. As of today, animal experimentation is legal, whether people believe that it is good or bad. More than 26 million animals “participate” in experiments, that save the lives of humans.

Animal rights are held too high in regard. People who scream that animal testing is wrong, do not understand the numerous benefits that come from experimentation. The entire truth is that the world has advanced in the past decades due to experimentation on animals. In day-to-day life objects all around us have been influenced in some way by animals. A countless number of things we take for granted every day would not exist if scientists did not experiment on animals. People should look at animals not as defenseless creatures, but as a development for the good of society.

Past many decades, animal testing has improved the practice of medicine, such as expanding the known knowledge of diseases and even creating cures. Major vaccines like polio, hepatitis B and C were developed and passed through animal testing. According to the Biomedical Research Association in California, most medical breakthroughs that have occurred in the last hundred years occurred from animal experimentation. Insulin was discovered from treatment in a dog’s pancreas. Two German researchers, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering found that when the pancreas was removed from dogs, the animals began to develop symptoms of diabetes, which most of the dogs dies soon after. The researchers newly understood where the site of “pancreas substances,” insulin was produced in the body.

Vaccines. A device that can lower the chances of contracting certain diseases. Vaccines have not always been there, and if there were not, a lot of people would die. To develop a vaccine, it takes extensive research to be done until the final product is ready. Immunizations against diphtheria, mumps, rubella, hepatitis, and polio have saved countless lives and the survival rates for these major diseases have hit an all-time high.

The benefits from animal experimentation will continue. Blood transfusions, antibiotics, organ transplants, joint replacement, chemotherapy, and dialysis have all been fabricated from animal experimentation.

References

Animal Research at Stanford. (n.d.). Why animal research? Animal Research at Stanford. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://med.stanford.edu/animalresearch/why-animal-research.html.

Akhtar, A. (2015, October). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics: CQ: the international journal of healthcare ethics committees. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/.

Cornett, E. M., Jones, M. R., & Kaye, A. D. (2019, May 11). Ethics of animal experimentation – springer. Ethics of Animal Experimentation. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99124-5_25.

Cruelty Free International. (n.d.). About Animal Testing. Animal Experimentation. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/about-animal-testing.

Foundation for Biomedical Research. (2020, May 27). Medical advances. Animal Testing and Research. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from https://fbresearch.org/medical-advances/.

Gleeson, A. (2020, August 6). Animal testing outperformed by computer modelsALFIE GLEESON. BioTechniques. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://www.biotechniques.com/drug-discovery-development/animal-testing-outperformed-by-computer-models/.

Humane Society International. (2019, March 31). Limitations of animal tests. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.hsi.org/news-media/limitations-of-animal-tests/.

Lone Star College. (n.d.). Save the Animals: Stop Animal Testing. Save the animals: Stop animal testing. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.lonestar.edu/stopanimaltesting.htm.

PETA. (2021, November 18). Animal Testing Facts and Statistics. Animals Are Not Ours. Retrieved December 11, 2021, from https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/animal-experiments-overview/.

 Pros & Cons – ProCon.org. Animal Testing. (2020, June 10). Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://animal-testing.procon.org/.

 Schiffelers, M. J., Hagelstein, G., Harreman, A., & Spek, M. van der. (2005, August 1). Regulatory animal testing: A survey of the factors influencing the use of animal testing to meet regulatory requirements. DSpace Home. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/45061.

The Public Engagement team at the Wellcome Genome Campus. (2017, March 3). Should animals be used in research? Debates. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.yourgenome.org/debates/should-animals-be-used-in-research.

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Definition Rewrite-Levixvice

Title depending

During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-present, spotted lanternflies (Lycorma delicatula) have invaded several areas in the northeast region of the U.S. These invasive insects are discovered to have successfully transported larvae and nymphs on firewood trading shipments from China. This has resulted in the devastation of fruit trees and grape vineyards depleting nutients and decreasing the chances of survival by causing trunk wounds and tree mold to develop. This has the potential to devastate agricultural chains and disrupt ecosystems. The primary food source for these lanternflies in their native habitat is Ailanthus altissima, also known as the “Tree of Heaven” in China; however, this plant species is also an invasive species worldwide. The lanternfliescan also eat a variety of other fruit trees from orchards in rural areas in America. Proposals for managing these invasive insects including capturing and returning them to their source, or eliminating them on sight near agricultural areas, as well as monitoring any lanternflies in the area. Spotted Lanternflies have a distinct pattern, a red body with black spots on brownish-grey wings being apart of a category of plant hopper from the eastern continents of China, India and South Korea respectively. The introduction of invasive species has opened up the topic of previous invasive species migrated mistakenly from their natural habitats to new one disrupting the natural order of nature.

The average size is 1 inch in length with a life span of one year. They are to lay around 30-50 eggs during the fall and winter season. Adult Lanternflies use upwinds to fly up 40 meters and are able to land on fruit tree orchards using their frontal wingspan and with an average airspeed of about 4.64 m/s. Anemotactic measurements are used to chart the movements of an object or thing in relation to the direction of the wind, allowing anyone to learn about their behavioral patterns. Using these measurements, researchers are able to figure out how the lanternflies use short flights to save small amounts of energy before their angled flight to the food source without exhausting themselves. Such strategy allows Lanternflies to anticipate their direction without falling to the ground, which most Lanternflies have tried and failed to do. This gives rise to the idea of how lanternflies easily migrated across the North American continent, flying from tree to tree and populating their kind to become an unstoppable force. Their average ground speed is 2.65 m/s as they take off at the 10 second mark in their bout towards the upwind by 4.64 m/s from the adult Spotted Lanternflies.

Fruit trees, such as apples, oranges, and peaches as well as grape vineyard orchards provide essential nutrients for spotted lanternflies as well as nesting grounds for their offspring, which has serious consequences for American farmers who have infestations of lanternflies and other orchard feeding bugs eating their hard-earned orchard trees, harming the economy and stores across the continent. Fruits have been treated with insecticides to keep their fresh look from being eaten away by lanternflies and other insects in the wild. Although the effects on the adult spotted lanternfly would be effective, the other issue would be the reproduction cycle of the spotted Lanternfly’s eggs and nymphs, which could be solved by using Chlorpyrifo to completely kill all the eggs from their hiding place. Another insecticide idea is to use Thiamethoxam and Bifenthrin, which are from a subcategory of insecticides that can be used to controlling insects for up to fourteen days and can be used directly on spotted lanternflies by approximately half of the population, which leaves the other half unharmed calmly. The cost of these insecticides to humans, however, would be their toxic hazard for everyone’s health, including taste and smell, if eaten by herbivore or omnivore animals, resulting in a double-edged sword for orchard protection that can eventually harm other lifeforms.

The alternative method for preventing the spread of Spotted Lanternflies in the area is to use lures and traps to capture them using their habitats such as covering tree trunks with sticky bands being the Bug Barrier or web cote tree bands with the use of methyl salicylate as the insect attractant lure from where the lanternfly might climb up, whether it’s a fruit orchard tree or a host tree, which stops them in their tracks, which was used on lanternflies that have already hatched from their eggs. The Pecan Weevil trap is also known as the Circle trunk trap because it is latched around the tree trunk by a velcro strip that’s been stapled and glued onto the jar with the insecticide strips to kill the lanternflies as well as a zipper bag that will collect them after two weeks of eliminating lanternflies in their late nymph and adult stages. The Intercept panel  creates a slip-slide effect with fluon solution and traps lanternflies in a jar with propylene glycol, which are  dumped from a paper cone strainer into a plastic bag to be sorted. Tall prism traps are similar to the sticky tree band traps, but they have an internal plastic prism supported by cables and pipes and painted brown to attract lanternflies in addition to the sticky bands around the surfaces. These traps have the greatest effect on lanternflies because the bugbarrier bands have a higher chance of capturing Lanternflies in the sticky tree bands. Regrettably, there are some disadvantages such as other insects becoming entangled in the traps and most lanternflies avoiding contact with the traps. The traps, on the other hand, have statistical value in terms of which life stage of the lanternfly prefers the attraction that surrounds the traps.

Lanternfly nymphs and adults have used their antennal sensory function to develop behavioral patterns that match their environment from their organs. The sensilla placodea and plate organ sensory have increased in size from 33 to 125 times during the nymphal instar cycle. The sexual dimorphism of adult Lanternflies sensilla placodea, which is related to mating behavior between males and females.

Reference sheet

Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x 

Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw

Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Validate User, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages 269–276, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627.  

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Annotated Bibliography-Levixvice

  1. Myrick, A.J., Baker, T.C. Analysis of Anemotactic Flight Tendencies of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) during the 2017 Mass Dispersal Flights in Pennsylvania. J Insect Behav 32, 11–23 (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s10905-019-09708-x Background: This article was used for the Spotted Lanternflies of their flight pattern and velocity during their breach in America when getting their food from fruit trees, vines, and normal trees for their bark. In order gather food to fuel up and a nest to lay their eggs during the winter months. How I used It: The ground speed used as a running mark before taking flight upwards to their destination as create a mental map of their flight capability that also helps them to spread from place to place within a short distance.

2. Houping Liu, Oviposition Substrate Selection, Egg Mass Characteristics, Host Preference, and Life History of the Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 48, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages 1452–1468, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz123

Background: This article contains the essential nutrients and egg nests for Spotted Lanternflies which are in fact plant trees and trees from the forest. It also includes how the female of the species would reproduce before the winter season arrives with measurements.

How I used It: The egg masses were all measured by their height, width, and depth as well as the density being how much eggs that female laid on each preferred tree they would used for the right amount. It also knows about the days on which the eggs will hatch to their growth over time becomes different.

3. “Spotted Lanternfly.” About the Spotted Lanternfly, Department of Agriculture, https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/pi/prog/pests-diseases/spotted-lanternfly/about/.

Background: This article describe what each life stage of a spotted Lanternfly would turn out to be with their abilities and coloration from nymphs to adult forms.

How I used It: This was used as a continuation from the previous article to explain more of their cycle in description revealing more info about the egg masses would look like mud in September into harden dirt in June.

4. Dechaine, Andrew Chase. “Phenology, Impact, and Rearing of Lycorma Delicatula (White) (Spotted Lanternfly) in Virginia .” VTechWorks Home, Virginia Tech, 2 Apr. 2021, https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/102930

Background: Phenology for the Spotted Lanternfly has progressed within America impacting farming and the environment for the worse through sampling and evidence to counteract these pest.

How I Used It: The counteractions were created in order to cull the Spotted Lanternfly through the methods of insecticides on trees to be protected from those flies and eventually kill them including using the insecticide on their favorite plant, the Tree of Heaven (A. altissima).

5. Liu, Houping, and Jason Mottern. Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 27 Jan. 2017, https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article/17/1/18/2875340.

Background: This article contains information about the existence of the Gypsy Moth’s encyrtid egg parasitoid called the Ooencyrtus kuvanae that used to control the Gypsy Moth population in America from the 1900s.

How I Used It: This parasitoid can be used effectively against the Spotted Lanternflies through implanting the host the eggs into a biological sense to protected and then be eaten off in any life stage the Lanternfly would be in, whether inside the egg masses during winter.

6. Leach, Heather, et al. “Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula, (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), a New Pest of Fruit in the Northeastern U.S.” Crop Protection, Elsevier, 30 May 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261219419301735?casa_token=HS980H8VqHgAAAAA%3APjvS6LajEnAFNPSA3w7969WkMkbulGC1Sce3EXLJQn4uFPLcL9LqPUeh_AplpbBD5Umt8a0LDw.

Background: The insecticide used on agriculture from the northeast to protect shrubs and fruit trees before the harvest starts during the fall season.

How I used It: This would be connected to number four for protection from the Spotted Lanternflies, that even stopping the egg masses from being planted.

7. Francese, Joseph A, et al. “Developing Traps for the Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).” Academic.oup.com, 28 Jan. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/2/269/5716627?login=true.

Background: Methods on capturing Spotted Lanternflies from where they live and before winter time comes around.

How I used It: Such capturing methods include the weaknesses of each Lanternfly of their preferred tree, the stage they are in, and how effective trap can be to cull the insects fully.

8. Wang, Rong-Rong, et al. “Relating antennal sensilla diversity and possible species behaviour in the planthopper pest Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae).” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 3, 27 Mar. 2018, p. e0194995. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A532485920/AONE?u=rowan&sid=bookmark-AONE&xid=9a13d451. Accessed 6 Dec. 2021.

Background: This details the differences the male and female Spotted Lanternfly through biological process as well as behavioral senses that extends from their sensory structures.

How I used It: I connect it to number 4 and 3 of their species being planthopper to learn their weaknesses and exploiting them without the need of insecticides that would harm other creatures as well.

9. Lawrence Barringer, Claire M Ciafré, Worldwide Feeding Host Plants of Spotted Lanternfly, With Significant Additions From North America, Environmental Entomology, Volume 49, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 999–1011, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa093

Background: Spotted Lanternflies depend on tree nutrients; such as the bark and tree sap that contains the sugar to refuel to survive and reproduce.

How I use it: I’ll use it to connect it with number two and seven to use this knowledge to plant traps around the tree.

10. Liu, Houping. “Occurrence, Seasonal Abundance, and Superparasitism of Ooencyrtus Kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as an Egg Parasitoid of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma Delicatula) in North America.” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 22 Jan. 2019, https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/2/79#cite.

Background: contains the functionality of superparasitism of how the Ooencyrtus Kuvanae wasp uses upon its prey of choice.

How I use it: connect it with number 5 with how the wasp would plant parasites inside the Spotted Lanternflies’ eggs and it effect on the offspring when it hatches.

11. Mohn, Aprille Noelle. “Anxiety: Environmental and Otherwise – Jayscholar.etown.edu.” JayScholar, Elizabethtown College, Mar. 2021, https://jayscholar.etown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=englstu.

Background: This contains the environmental anxiety around the world and it includes the invasive species hazard that would harm natural balance.

How I use it: To associate it with Spotted Lanternflies as a invasive species that would decrease the tree population and make worse for the other species.

12. Liu, Houping. “Seasonal Development, Cumulative Growing Degree-Days, and Population Density of Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on Selected Hosts and Substrates.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 1 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1171/5879580?login=true.

Background: The population density for Spotted Lanternfly from their sites, substrates, and sampling to know how many are these insects are in during the research in each tree.

How I use it: researching on the trees they use for their egg masses and how will they grow in size.

13. Urban, Julie M, and Dennis Calvin. “Early Response (2018–2020) to the Threat of Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Pennsylvania.” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 26 Aug. 2021, https://academic.oup.com/aesa/article-abstract/114/6/709/6358080.

Background: The history of how the Spotted Lanternflies came to America and its efforts to infest the northeast.

How I use it: becoming aware of their emergence and damage they’ve done on the landscape and since 2014.

14. Nixon, Laura J, et al. “Development of Behaviorally Based Monitoring and Biosurveillance Tools for the Invasive Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) .” Academic.oup.com, Oxford Academic, 21 Aug. 2020, https://academic.oup.com/ee/article/49/5/1117/5895233?login=true.

Background: monitoring the Spotted Lanternflies through the traps which the researchers can learn more about the population.

How I use it: to connect it to number 9 and 12

15. Urban, Julie M. “Perspective: Shedding Light on Spotted Lanternfly Impacts in the USA.” Wiley Online Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 10 Oct. 2019, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ps.5619.

Background: More information about the consequences of how Spotted Lanternflies will corrupt the environment as pestilence.

How I use it: to connect it with number 11 and 9 in a way the environment is becoming imbalance; due to the invasive species’ presence.

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Not Because – chickendinner

1. Coats’ firing was not for using marijuana. After all, he had a prescription to use it and was entirely within his legal right. Coats was fired becase he violated workplace policy.

2. An employee taking medicine to mitigate their anxiety is not a legitimate reason to fire them.

3. Since alcohol is not illegal, employees can responsibly enjoy it on their own time without fear for their job. Since marijuana is not illegal in Colorado, the same standard should apply.

4. It is unjust that Coats was fired simply for trying to mitigate his pain.

5. An employee eaing the pain from their muscle spams using marijuana should not be grounds to discriminate against them.

6. Coats was smoking marijuana on his own time and property and hence was not harming anyone.

7. Omar Gonzalez failed to penetrate deep into the White House because of the swift actions of Secret Service agents.

8. The way the Secret Service responded to the breach of the White House is not a matter of investigation, but how the breach occurred is under question.

9. Secret Service chief Julia Pierson’s testimony before Congress yesterday will not cost her her job, but her own incompetence might.

10. Secret Service agents refrained from using deadly force against the intruder because he was carrying a knife with a 4-inch blade.

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