Hoyt, Erich. “Dangers to Trainers.” PBS. PBS, 1992. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: Erich Hoyt’s, veterinarian, article “Dangers to Trainers” talks about how orca whales are wild animals and they occasionally will attack. He explains how many accidents with trainers and captive whales come from the sociological facts that the whale is unhappy and wants to be free. Some injuries are actually accidents from stunts gone wrong. Hoyt also talks about life expectancy.

How I used it: I used this article in a few different papers. I took a few quotes that explained how captive animals emotions are unexplainable. When the animals feel depressed, they tend to attack their trainers.


Moosa, Tauriq. “Is Animal Captivity Wrong? | Big Think.” Big Think. N.p., 11 Mar. 2014. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: This article talks about animal captivity and the wrongness and righteousness of it. Many animals in the zoo are starving and dying behind their cages. But too often, the causes of suffering tend to smudge our view of what is wrong. Animals in cages might automatically lead to us responding with sadness, but captivity might not be as awful as we think. Some animals that are endangered are being helped in captivity by keeping them alive, but others are slowly dying.

How I used this Article: I used this article to help me with a few of my papers. This article shows both sides of captivity; the wrongness and the righteousness. I was able to prove my point as to why captivity is bad but also was able to use this article in my rebuttal to say captivity is not such a bad thing for some animals.

PETA. “10 Things You Didn’t Know About SeaWorld – SeaWorld of Hurt.” SeaWorld of Hurt. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: SeaWorld of Hurt and PETA are working together to persuade Americans to discontinue their visits to SeaWorld. Their website gives mas information as to why SeaWorld is a horrible place. They talk about the dangers that SeaWorld puts the trainers and the whales through, and talks about how much better off the whales are in the wild than in captivity. Their list says SeaWorld covers their whale’s sunburn with black zinc oxide. They kidnap their whales and if killed during the capturing they are drowned. Sea World shortens their lifespan. The animals suffer from crammed, unnatural living conditions.

How I Used This Article: This article was used a lot throughout all my work. This article gave me 10 reasons why SeaWorld is harmful and I was able to take this information to make my claim.

“Sea World Responds to Blackfish Documentary, Sea Shepherd Sets the Record Straight » EcoWatch.” EcoWatch. N.p., 23 Dec. 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: This source is an editorial about SeaWorld’s response to the documentary film Blackfish. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment is embarrassed and humiliated by this film. They preach that Blackfish is only focusing on the negative aspects of the park. SeaWorld claims they are helping their captured mammals and are raising them as if they are in the wild while providing a better home. They believe taking an animal out of its natural habitat helps lengthen their lifespan and helps provide them with a better life. Blackfish rebuts everything that Sea World has to say. Sea World says Blackfish is not a documentary, but it is propaganda.

How I used this Article: This article was useful for my rebuttal. This article shows how SeaWorld defends themselves and says they are not harming the animals, which is exactly what my rebuttal was.

“Free Orca.” Orca Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: The website WWW.orcahome.du shows an entire list of injured or killed humans by captive whales in SeaWorld. The list provides over 100 entries of attacks over the past 50 years. In the wild, there have been zero reports of attacks by orca whales on humans. This website also provides other information. It states that most orcas live off the oceans of Japan, the North American Pacific Northwest, Iceland, Norway, Scotland and Antarctica. There are only one spices of orca but a couple different races depending on where they live. The website talks about identification of the whales and their families. They state that male whales grow up to be about 32 feet long and 10-11 tons while females are about 28 feet long and weight about 7-8 tons. Male dorsal fins grow to be about 5 feet high and females 3 feet high, allowing for easy distinction. Males live a short life than females. This website is very informative and gives a lot of information about orca whales.

How I used this Article: This article helped me with my claim. It gave me a lot of information and quotes about the wild orcas verses captive orcas.

“Captivity.” WDC, Whale and Dolphin Conservation. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Background: This website,, has mas information not only about orca whales, but also about the other types of whales. The website describes orcas as the apex predators of the sea and the largest members of the dolphin family. They are highly intelligent, highly adaptable and able to communicate and coordinate hunting tactics. They say there has never been a documented attack on a human in the wild, and there are some stories of orcas actually protecting humans at sea from sharks. Orcas are found throughout the world’s seas, typically in pods, or families, that share a common dialect. When an orca is born, it stays with its family its entire life. They mostly live in cold areas of the sea. Capturing of orcas and other sea life, including their prey, has caused them to be classified as endangered with the population being less than 50,000. A safe home, such as their natural habitat, is the key for survival of this endangered species.

How I used this Article: I used this on my final paper. I was able to take quotes and information to support my claim. The article talks about wild orcas and how they are perfectly fine in the wild. An orca in the wild is safer than an orca in captivity. This article helped me prove my claim.

“What Causes Dorsal Fin Collapse?” Cetacean Inspiration. N.p., 06 Jan. 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

This website,, talks all about orcas and their collapsed dorsal fins due to captive lives. This website is also the home to many campaigns and promotions used to help close down Sea World and prevent people from visiting the parks. In December, 2009, an orca killed trainer Alexis Martínez at a marine park in the Canary Islands. Only two months later, trainer Dawn Brancheau, SeaWorld’s best trainer, was killed by an orca at SeaWorld Orlando. OSHA, occupational safety and health administration, tried to fight against SeaWorld saying Martínez’s death should have been served as a warning about swimming and working with whales, ultimately trying to save Brancheau’s life.  During a “relationship session” with Tilikum, Tikikum pulled on Brancheau’s ponytail and dragged her to the bottom of the pool and ended up killing her. Tilikum has been involved with 2 previous deaths. OSHA believes SeaWorld knew how dangerous Tilikum could be but did nothing about it.  This website fights in favor of OSHA in trying to shut down SeaWorld and inform the world of the dangers and actions that occur there.

How I used this Article: Helped support my claim on how the trainers and SeaWorld treat the animals poorly. Showed and proved there was actual damage to the captive whales.

Blackfish. Dir. Gabriela Cowperthwaite. Prod. Manny Oteyza. 2013. Documentary.

Background: The film Blackfish is a documentary explaining the horrible living conditions that SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment puts their sea life mammals through. The film has many interviews of divers who took part in the capturing process. They talk about how they captured the whales, how they disposed of the dead whales, and how they transported these helpless animals. Former whale trainers from SeaWorld speak about their experiences with the whales. They talk about the horrible living condition the male whale lived in and the bullying he went through. They reminisced about a former coworker who was killer by one of the whales. The purpose of Blackfish is to educate all of America and other viewers about orcas and why these whales and other sea creatures should be kept in the wild. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment wanted no part of this film. The amusement park was put to shame and humiliated hopefully causing less visitors at the park. Blackfish explains why SeaWorld is a bad place and basically why it needs to be shut down.

How I used this Article: “Blackfish” was the start of my claim. This was the first video I watched and this is how I was able to pick my topic.

“Should We Keep Animals in Zoos?” Should We Keep Animals in Zoos? N.p., 2013. Web. 05 Feb. 2015.

Background: This article is a debate website. The debate is whether or not to keep animals in zoos. 67% of people say no, and 33% said yes. A few arguments presented for no include: once an animal is taken from the wild and placed in a zoo, it will never return to the wild. Taking an animal out of the wild can cause extinction. Animals are being taken away from their territory, natural habitat, and their families. Most people view zoos as prisons and a sick form of entertainment. A few arguments for yes are: captive animals are given a good amount of food and never have to worry about starving. They help keep the rare species alive by their breeding programs. A good zoo provides an enriched habitat in which the animals are never bored, are well cared-for, and have plenty of space. Zoos help rehabilitate wildlife and take in exotic pets that people no longer want or are no longer able to care for. This article was able to provide both sides of the argument.

How I used it: I used this article to prove statistics. This article was only about why or why not animals should be held captive. I took the why not portion and was able to use it as supporting ideas.

Leinw, Donna, and Leger. “SeaWorld Challenges Ban on Whale-trainer Contact.” USA Today. Gannett, 12 Nov. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2015.

Background: This article focuses on the question of should SeaWorld allow their trainers to swim in the water with their whales, or not? There is a federal ban opposed on letting trainers swim with the whales. In 2010 a large orca dragged their head trainer, Dawn Branchau, off a platform and drowned her under water; it took 45 minutes before the other trainers could get a hold of her physical body from the whale. This is not the first this time specific whale has killed a trainer at the park. SeaWorld has been in a three-year legal battle with the federal government, arguing that human contact with killer whales is educational and integral to the care of the species. This does not justify a death. Also, SeaWorld lawyer is the son of the head of the Supreme Court judge.

How I used it: I used this article to prove that trainers and whales should not be swimming together. This article provided information about several whale attacks on trainers. I used quotes and evidence from this article to support my claim.




This entry was posted in Bibliography Archives. Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Bibliography—jcirrs

  1. jcirrs says:

    feedback was requested.

    Feedback provided.


  2. davidbdale says:

    What’s missing here, jcirrs, are the “:How I Used It” sections. Refer back to the official assignment for the Bibliography for a model.


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