Annotated Bibliography-Frogs

  1. Obesity and Cancer (nih.gov)

Obesity and Cancer | CDC. (2021, March 10). Www.cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/obesity/index.htm

Background: This study covers that weight, weight gain, and obesity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Evidence on obesity is showing the benefits of physical activity for breast and colon cancers. The growing epidemic of obesity provides a challenge to clinical practice and the implementation of guidelines for the management of weight. Data from the past 25 years point to obesity as a cause of approximately 14% of cancer deaths in men and up to 20% of cancer deaths in women. Overweight and obesity have increased from 15% in 1980 to 35% in 2005. The researchers, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), studied and tested the rates of obesity in the majority of the common cancers. Researchers concluded that that obesity was a cause of 11% of colon cancer cases, 9% of postmenopausal breast cancer cases, 39% of endometrial cancer cases, 25% of kidney cancer cases, and 37% of esophageal cancer cases. Since the 2002 IARC report, new evidence has supported a cause-and-effect relation between overweight and obesity and the start of these cancers, increasing the responsibility of cancer resulting from obesity. The estimation is that overweight and obesity cause approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Coming behind tobacco, overweight/obesity is the second highest cause of cancer cases. Obesity is one of the top leading causes of cancer. 

How I used it: This article served as direct evidence to support my thesis, that overweight and obesity are steadily increasing and that obesity is one of the top leading causes of cancer. This article fit perfectly for my arguments because it included so many percentages that people can relate to. For example, the percentage of cancer cases was 20%, you just have to wait and see if you are that 20. This source is reliable and helps pull readers in. Readers should want to read this article to see how they should stop themselves from getting cancer. 

  1. How cancer affects men and women differently | Edward-Elmhurst Health (eehealth.org)

How cancer affects men and women differently. (n.d.). Www.eehealth.org. https://www.eehealth.org/blog/2017/11/how-cancer-affects-men-and-women-differently/

Background: After observing this article, men are more likely to get cancer while women are more likely to survive it. Men are 6% more likely to die from any type of cancer than women. Men are 12% more likely to die from a certain type of cancer than a woman with the same type of cancer. “A recent study suggests that the differences between the sexes may in part be due to carcinogenic exposures and lifestyle factors like cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and eating fattier foods — all of which are more prevalent among men.” Men are less likely to get cancer scans than women. They attend to avoid medical attention. Developing cancers can be traced back to the hormones contributing to differences in men’s and women’s “immune systems, metabolism, and general susceptibility to cancer, as well as genetic differences.” Sex is an important factor in the diagnosis and prognosis of many diseases. The risk of cancer is much higher in males, relative to females, for a majority of cancers at most ages, exposure factors implicated in these sex disparities include hormones, body mass index (kg/m2), viral infections, carcinogenic susceptibility, and health care access and utilization. Gender plays a role in different cancers. 

How I used it: This article helped support my hypothesis because it goes into detail about the odds of women and men surviving cancer. This fit perfectly in my argument because my hypothesis went into detail about how men are more likely to get cancer than women. Women are more likely to survive it. I used this because once again it pulls the reader in. Readers should be concerned about if what they are doing is a healthy way to live and how to dodge cancer and obesity. This article hit points on sex and how it is a factor in the diagnosis of many diseases, not just cancer.

  1. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence – PubMed (nih.gov)

Pan, S. Y., & DesMeules, M. (2009). Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 472, 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_8

Background: Physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are related to total energy intake. It is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient pieces of evidence to support the role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast. The association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer.  Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns, and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer. It is known that obesity does not have a role in lung cancer. People who are obese can have lung cancer, but it is not a factor of lung cancer. Obesity in other cancer risks is unclear. The body mass index can determine whether you are obese or not. Body mass index is a value derived from the mass and height of a person. The body mass index is used as a screening tool for overweight and obesity. Being overweight and obese can cause changes in the body that help lead to cancer. Some of these changes are long-lasting inflammation and higher than normal levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and sex hormones. The risk of cancer increases with the more excess weight a person gains and the longer a person is overweight.

How I used it: This was used for many reasons. No one understands the real damage obesity can cause. This article recognizes the BMI and its value derived from the mass and height of a person. This comes into the role of obesity because football players have a big mass and they are tall. Those football players are considered obese but they are healthy. This article helped with my rebuttal argument. 

  1. Cardiovascular and other competing causes of death among patients with cancer from 2006 to 2015: An Australian population‐based study – Ye – 2019 – Cancer – Wiley Online Library

Ye, Y., Otahal, P., Marwick, T. H., Wills, K. E., Neil, A. L., & Venn, A. J. (2018). Cardiovascular and other competing causes of death among patients with cancer from 2006 to 2015: An Australian population‐based study. Cancer, 125(3), 442–452. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31806

Background: Studies have shown that with improved cancer survivorship, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other noncancer events compete with cancer as the underlying cause of death, but the risks of mortality in competing-risk settings have not been well characterized. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of conditions that involve the heart and blood vessels. Common complications include heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke. The number of individuals living with a history of cancer has continued to increase. CVD deaths are varied by first cancer site, indicating increased risks after the first diagnosis of lung cancer, hematologic malignancy, and urinary tract cancer. For individuals with all cancers combined, CVD was the leading cause of competing mortality in both male and female patients with cancer. CVD can be caused by obesity. Men are more likely to be more active than women. Heart disease and weight loss are closely linked because your risk for heart disease is associated with your weight. If you are overweight or obese, you may be at higher risk for the condition. Medical experts consider obesity and being overweight to be major risk factors for both coronary heart disease and heart attack.

How I used it: I used this in my rebuttal argument because it went against the fact that obesity causes cancer. Many other things cause cancer such as CVD. This is beneficial to my argument because not only do people have to worry about becoming obese but also have to worry about gaining CVD. My readers should start to believe that unhealthy habits will lead to death. This also contributed to my causal argument because obesity contributes to CVD and cancer. 

  1. Overweight and obesity predict better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant metastases – Tsang – 2016 – Cancer Medicine – Wiley Online Library

Tsang, N. M., Pai, P. C., Chuang, C. C., Chuang, W. C., Tseng, C. K., Chang, K. P., Yen, T. C., Lin, J. D., & Chang, J. T. C. (2016). Overweight and obesity predict better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant metastases. Cancer Medicine, 5(4), 665–675. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.634

Background: Cancer remains a leading cause of death and a major public health concern worldwide. “According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report, approximately 12.7 million cancer cases are newly diagnosed and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur each year globally.” The current retrospective study is designed to investigate the potential association between BMI and overall survival in patients with distant metastases and favorable performance status. Multiple recent studies studied patients with chronic diseases and have reported an inverse association between body mass index. The World Health Organization’s BMI classification system, which includes the following categories: underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (BMI: 18.5–24.99 kg/m2), overweight (BMI: 25–29.99 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Another point of consideration of the merits when dealing with the prognostic significance of BMI in cancer patients is the time of its determination. Due to lean body mass, reductions in adipose tissue may become more pronounced in advanced disease stages. “Tumors of high malignant potential are supposed to require higher levels of energy for growth. The findings indicate that overweight and obesity are independent predictors of better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant measures and good performance status.‌”

How I used it: I used this article mainly because it has a study from the World Health Organization which is the most reliable source. This source goes into detail about BMI and survival rates. Lean body mass, reductions in adipose tissue may become more pronounced in advanced disease stages. It describes the different BMI so you can determine whether or not obesity can become a problem. 

  1. Kanter, R., & Caballero, B. (2012). Global Gender Disparities in Obesity: A Review. Advances in Nutrition, 3(4), 491–498. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002063

Background: This article talks about how weight gain occurs due to energy imbalance. Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. The causes of obesity are biological and social and may vary considerably by sex or gender. This article illustrates gender disparities in overweight and obesity. Physical activities, cultural values, biological factors, and urbanization were the most commonly discussed explanations regarding gender disparities in overweight and obesity. This article introduced how sociocultural facts have an effect on weight. Excess weight is gained as a result of gender differences in dietary intake. The implications of excess weight gain on health may also vary by sex. Ultimately, solutions aimed at obesity prevention, from community-level programs to national-level policies, maybe the same for both men and women. But these may be more effective at obesity prevention if they are conveyed in a gender-specific manner.

How I used it: This article was beneficial to use because it was very specific on the differences between men’s and women’s calorie intake. I specifically used this to describe the differences between men’s and women’s obesity. 

  1. Intriguing Pros And Cons For Being Overweight | For Big & Heavy People. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2021, from https://forbigandheavypeople.com/pros-and-cons-for-being-overweight/#:~:text=%20Health%20Benefits%20Of%20Being%20Overweight%20%201

Background: This article goes into detail about the pros and cons of obesity. This article explains how the mentality of the world we live in is pressurized to have the perfect body and to not have any fat on you. Unfortunately, that is never the case. Being overweight is not necessarily a bad thing. There are benefits such as you are less likely to be cold during the wintertime because there are more layers of fat on you. You have a less restrictive diet. There are a few health benefits of being overweight such as an increased immune system resulting in fewer sick days. The pros of obesity are very slim. The cons of obesity overpower the pros. You carry around more weight a day. There are troubles with exercising. How you handle obesity is whether or not you are okay with your weight. Your number one concern in life should be your health. If your weight is affecting your health then it is time to take action in the unhealthy habits you are living. 

How I used it: Obesity has many disadvantages including the lack of ability to be mobile. The enhanced immune systems of people with obesity are due to their lack of activity, the body has no option but to increase the immune system due to the amount of fat in the body. 

  1. Walsh, G. (n.d.). Why obesity is not a choice. The Irish Times. Retrieved December 6, 2021, from https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/health-family/why-obesity-is-not-a-choice-1.4095580#:~:text=The%20psychological%20approach%20in%20understanding%20our%20 behaviour%20 surrounding

Background: This article states the issues and society’s view on why obesity is not a choice. The reason so many people fluctuate with weight is that diet programs do not look deeper into the whys of our eating habits and weight gain. Obesity is not a choice. “It carries a complex combination of biological and psychological factors, including environmental and social elements, which affect our weight. Addressing this impact can encourage greater weight loss.” Obesity is genetic the majority of the time. “Genetic factors, the impact of stress, eating behaviors, food cues, emotional eating, mental health, adversity, and social and economic status all have a significant bearing on weight loss and gain.” Obesity causes depression and many mental health issues.” Weight gain or weight loss can cause health issues. It is not a choice. 

How I used it: This article was crucial to my thesis as it discusses how obesity is mostly caused by genetic disorders and not as much about intake. This is the most important part of the article because it is meant to reach out to the public and inform them that everyone who is fat is not obese and that most obese people are genetically given the disease. 

  1. Brehm, B. J., & D’Alessio, D. A. (2014, November). Environmental Factors Influencing Obesity. Nih.gov; MDText.com, Inc. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278977/

Background: Obesity prevalence is significantly associated with sex, racial-ethnic identity, and socioeconomic status, which creates complex relationships between each of these characteristics. “Given the extent of the information on individual, environmental, and social hierarchy constraints on obesity development, it is important to understand how these can merge with clinical care.” Discussing someones’ food diet can cause insecurities. Diabetes was mentioned in this article. The Diabetes Prevention Program is a lifestyle program focused on weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity.

How I used it: The main components of this article that I used is the fact that it explains the prevailing differences in populations and why some cultures and sexes have a higher probability of becoming obese. In poor neighborhoods where there is less money, you do not tend to see higher chain amenities but rather fast-food chains which are filled with empty calories that have no nutrition and build fat at a very low price. 

  1. How 10 Olympians With Cancer Fought the Disease. (n.d.). Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/famous-athletes-who-defeated-cancer-513804

Background: This source presented many different examples of how cancer is not a discriminative disease. It does not matter how much a person weighs, how tall they are, or who they are, whether they’re a celebrity or a normal person walking in the street. Cancer is a destructive disease that is not selective at all. In this article, there are the names of 10 Olympic stars who suffered from cancer. 

How I used it: I used this article to convey the message that anyone can get cancer and that it is not a selective disease and can attack anyone. Someone who believes that being skinny or active will prevent all cancer is the reason included in this article. If people do not have yearly checkups or believe that cancer is not a danger to them then they may overlook the symptoms that come before. Being able to understand the symptoms and understand that it doesn’t matter who a person is or what they do is a crucial element to beating cancer. This article puts unusual and unknown information into the public so that they may think twice before overlooking an oddity in their life.

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