1. Roose, K. (2023). The Brilliance and Weirdness of ChatGPT. The New York Times.

Background: This is a December 2022 NY Times article that defines key terms essential to understanding how AI generators work. It discusses specifically Chat-GPT, which is a prime example of the type of technology I reference throughout the paper.

How I Used It: I used this source as an introduction to some of the basic ideas behind AI generators. To a person who isn’t familiar with Chat-GPT or other AIs, the following research paper could be thoroughly confusing without the following knowledge.

2. What is Machine Learning? | IBM. (2016). 

Background: This article contains a scientific definition of Machine Learning. Comes from the IBM Company, a trusted leader itself in the AI field.

How I Used It: I used this source to define a key term referenced frequently in my paper: “Machine Learning”.

3. Zhu C, Zeng M, Huang X. SDNet: Contextualized Attention-based Deep Network for Conversational Question Answering. Published online 2019.

Background: This source is a scientific journal that focuses on the scientific and technological mechanisms that allow for Deep Learning, and in turn: AI.

How I Used It: I used this to offer a closer look into the idea of CNNs or “Convolutional Neural Networks.” This again is a key term in understanding HOW AI does what it does. Is it true creation or compilation?

4. Milne. (2020). What is creativity? British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), 29(12), S4–S4.

Background: This comes from a Journal of Nursing of all places and is an exploration of the possible definitions for Creativity, notably in the medical context but all the while useful.

How I Used It: I used this source to introduce my claims that Creativity is an extremely complex idea that is hard to define, however, I quoted this journal to highlight how there are certain accepted criteria for what creativity looks like.

5. Barwell, I. (1986). How does art express emotion?. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 45(2), 175-181.

Background: This is an article from 1986 that provides a detailed exploration of how art, in general, is perceived and how art AFFECTS human emotions.

How I Used It: I used this article as a foundation for my claims on arts’ connectivity to emotions. Barwell’s rhetoric can prove to be confusing, but the quote I pulled I believe communicates the idea well.

6. Denner, M. A. (2003). Accidental art: Tolstoy’s poetics of unintentionality. Philosophy and Literature, 27(2), 284-303.

Background: This is an academic analysis of the book cited below, it summarizes key takeaways regarding Tolstoy’s take on the concept of Art Intentionality.

How I Used It: While I never quoted this directly, I used it as a guide map when exploring the vast original Tolstoy book What is Art?.

7. Tolstoy, L. (1899). What is Art?. United Kingdom: Crowell. Pg 50.

Background: Written by renowned author L.N. Tolstoy, this is his book about the counterintuitivity experienced when faced with defining Art. He explores numerous concepts, notably the idea of Art Intentionality.

How I Used It: I specifically used Tolstoy’s comments on whether or not the emotion of the artIST matters. I claim that it always does to a certain degree, and so did Tolstoy– a distinguished artist himself.

8. Mframa, K. (2022, October 27). Separating art from the artist is impossible The Commonwealth Times. The Commonwealth Times.

Background: This admittedly does come from a college independent Journal, so I’m hesitant to include it. However, it conveys strong messages about CURRENT real-world examples of Artist-Bias.

How I Used It: I quoted the journalist’s claims regarding Kanye West’s run-in with artist-bias, and how our current society is handling the issue. While seemingly unrelated to AI, it demonstrates how especially today it is hard for us to separate the artist from the art, and that connects to my claim that we would react (positively or negatively) if we learned work was made by AI.

9. Shahriar, S. (2022). GAN computers generate arts? a survey on visual arts, music, and literary text generation using generative adversarial network. Displays, 102237.

Background: Published in ScienceDirect, this article is about GANs, another technology behind the AIs we know today.

How I Used It: I used a description of this technology as a rebuttal to my claims because the author writes that GANs can indeed create “new” data, or in my context “new art”.

10. Getty Images Statement. (2023, January 17). Getty Images Statement. Getty Images Press Site – Newsroom – Getty Images.

Background: A press release from Getty Images HQ regarding their legal battle with Stability AI– on the grounds that the AI company used their unlicensed images to train their algorithms.

How I Used It: I used this as an example of how AI algorithms rely heavily on the compilation of existing images, so much so that the largest image database in the country is forced into legal action against it.

11. Yang, R. Are the Artists no Longer Needed in the AI Age?. International Journal of Education and Management, 274.

Background: In a bold article from the Journal of Education and Management, the author explores the implications of AI and its role as an Artist.

How I Used It: I used this as a basic rebuttal to my claims. The author believes AI exhibits the potential to replace artists. I used him as an example of the group in society that relates to his thinking.

12. Ana Santos Rutschman. (2018, March 15). Stephen Hawking warned about the perils of artificial intelligence – yet AI gave him a voice. The Conversation.

Background: Coming from The Conversation, Stephen Hawking’s relationship and opinion with AI are discussed.

How I Used It: I quoted Hawking directly, a quote which appeared in this article, regarding how he feared AI could “spell the end of the human race.”

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