1. Smartphone use at night may cause insomnia, blue light exposure to blame – Study Finds

Background: This article attempts to alert teenagers on the issues of cell usage at night time. This is all negative sided towards the usage of smartphones before bed. There are no positive effects that this article mentions and it believes sleep is very necessary. It mainly talks about the blue light exposure that people receive from actively being on their phones and how this can cause sleep deprivation and issues. 

How I used it: I intended to use this article to explain the facts of blue light exposure and the sleeplessness it may cause. This also allows the reader to understand the negative effects of phones starting with the blue light exposure. 

  1. Do Smart Phones Cause Insomnia? – Ask Dr. Weil (

Back ground: This article mentions that the blue light in smartphones can be a risk to insomnia but manufactures are looking for a way to solve this blue light problem. This article is to reassure people that until the blue light issue gets fixed, people should stay off their phones before bedtime. 

How I used it: My intentions with this article was to show my audience that as of now there are no facts about cell phone use causing insomnia but there are ways that the blue light can be effective on sleeping. The blue light issue can ultimately become resolved. 

  1. How Screen Time May Cause Insomnia in Teens | Sleep Foundation

Background: This article is not facts, it is simple ways that screen time may cause sleep problems. This article shows ways smartphones can be of use and beneficial. There are no studies and found research in this article; it is mostly estimations on  how sleep can be an issue towards teens. 

How I used it: This article was used to show that there are a small amount of benefits to cell phone usage but it can result in insomnia to teens who overuse it. 

  1. Do mobile phones affect your sleep? | The Lighthouse (

Background:  This article is about the issues phones can cause to the brain. The author talks about sleep specialists and their opinions on this topic. This article speaks specifically on the importance of sleep and how poor sleep can create multiple issues to a person and their body. 

How I used it: By using sleep specialist’s ideas and thoughts as to why cell phone use at night should be limited it allows the reader to see multiple points of view. 

5. Cell phone addiction and psychological and physiological health in adolescents – PMC (

Background: This particular article has facts and statistics arguments as to why it is common that people will develop insomnia from using their phones before bed. It describes how cell phones have become an addiction to adolescents. It shows the increase of cell phone addiction and how technology has become something that people use in their daily lives. 

How I used it: I intend to use the researchers’ opinions and quotes to emphasize the fact that this can become a bigger problem than it already is. By using other advocates opinions and thoughts, it allows the audience to listen more. 

6. Analysis: Teens are sleeping less. Why? Smartphones | PBS NewsHou

Background: This article talks about disturbed sleep and how teens that are consistently checking their social media at night are the ones who are becoming sleep deprived. One of the consequences teens go through because of using social media at night is sleep deprivation. 

How I used it: This article was one that really stuck out because it was very useful in all of my papers since sleep deprivation is the main topic on why teens are awake on their phones. This was just another article to show how others agree on this topic. 

7. What Is REM Sleep and How Much Do You Need? (

Background: This article talks about REM sleep and what it is. This could connect to my topic on teens not getting enough sleep because of phones because the article shows that receiving REM sleep can be the reason that teens are sleeping less soundly because the brain cannot function and have REM sleep with the constant phone use at night. 

How I used it: I briefly brought up REM sleep and memory problems associated with a sleep disruption.  This was important because teens who don’t get enough sleep don’t go through this stage of sleep. 

8. How to Automatically Silence Notifications on iPhone At Night (

Background: The alertness to notifications may change the value of sleep for teens because they are more interested in staying in touch overnight than being asleep. Teens are so nosy and concerned for their notifications, they will jump up to check their phones while supposed to be sleeping. This article shows how it is a major problem. 

How I used it: I used this to show how teens never fully go to sleep relaxed because they are waiting for a notification. Teens will be constantly alerted and checking their phone that they wont be relaxed enough to receive the sleep they need. 

9. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009–2015 and association with new media screen time – ScienceDirect

Background: This article shows multiple reports on sleep. They want to improve adolescent health because of their electronic devices. This also explains how electronic device and social media use increases the odds of short sleep duration.

How I used it: I used this article to show how smartphones are the cause of the increase in self-reported short sleep duration. Sleep deprivation is a high risk when teens are using their phones more than they should and this article was able to show that in reports. 

10. Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? – The Atlantic

Background: This article mainly talks about the obsession teens have with technology and their smartphones. It has interviews of teenagers specifically saying that they use their phone too much especially at night. 

How I used it: I used this to show how teens admitted that they would reach for their phones as the first thing they did in the morning after waking up and the last thing they did was use their phone. I was able to explain to my readers how even teenagers believe they are obsessed with their smartphones. 

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1 Response to Bibliography-pinkheart

  1. davidbdale says:

    As an example of how you could improve this work, PinkHeart, I get no sense at all of the actual value of Source 4 to you. Did you need to survey the opinions of lots of people? Which opinions of the author or the specialists he surveyed were valuable to you? If I wanted to confirm the value of your sources to your paper, what would I go to Source 4 looking for?


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