1. Between Human and Object: Performing Artists on the Possibilities of Puppets. (2013, June 3). Creative Capital.

Background: This article provides insight into why spectators feel a connection to puppets and how it stems from a place of struggle. It also suggests that puppets allow for greater experimentation in a theatre setting and the audience will feel safer witnessing new concepts through puppets rather than living human beings. The article explains why understanding this relationship allows not only performers but spectators also to experiment with new emotions and concepts in a safe setting.

How I Used It: I used this article in my causal argument because it does a beautiful job of exploring the existence of the puppet and how that relates to the existence of humans. It grapples with the idea of puppets being real and unreal at the same time, which is interesting and adds a nice new level to my causal argument and overall paper.

  1. Wright, M., & Wright, M. (2016, August 3). Power in Puppetry. Getty Iris.

Background: This article explores the relationship between the puppet and the puppeteer, as well as the puppet and the audience. It highlights how the puppet’s breath comes from the puppeteer, however somehow, these objects take on a life of their own, completely unknown to humans. This life has the ability to move spectators to laugh, cry, gasp, and feel various other emotions that human actors may convey in the same way. 

How I Used It: This is one of the most helpful and powerful articles that I used while writing my research paper. It provided incredible information about the emotional effect that puppets have on the audience. For that reason, I used it in my definition argument to explain why humans empathize so deeply with puppets. One of the stories told in the article is referenced in my paper because it is a wonderful example of how puppets can touch humans so deeply. This article is a statement of how effective and powerful puppets are and always will be.

  1. Cummings, S. T. (2019, December 30). Puppets: Still Very Much a Thing. AMERICAN THEATRE. 

Background: This article touches on the relationship between human and puppet, claiming that puppets can determine their own stories as long as the puppeteer lets them tell the story. The article also dives into the performance aspect of puppeteering and how the puppet shape’s the audience’s interpretation to be whatever they allow themselves to believe.

How I Used It: I used this article in my definition argument because it has strong quotes to explain the relationship between the puppet and the audience. I used quotes to present the idea that the puppet’s liveliness exists primarily in the audience’s heads. This shows readers that puppetry is a collaborative art form between the performers and the viewers.

  1. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2021, from

Background: This article explores ‘object theatre’ and how artists can work with objects in a way that includes them as characters and important parts of the story, rather than just props. The article also urges audience members to view objects in theatre in a more inclusive and curious light, constantly wondering how they impact the show and what their relation to the characters is. 

How I Used It: I quoted this article in my definition argument and it was incredibly helpful for explaining the concept of object theatre. I used it to not only define object theatre but also explain why it is a fascinating and exciting aspect of theatre. This article was beneficial for my paper because it expands the definition of puppetry and expands the reader’s viewpoint of inanimate performance.

  1. UNIMA. (2018, September 17). Theatre of Objects. World Encyclopedia of Puppetry Arts.

Background: This article does a great job of giving examples of instances in history when puppetry or the use of inanimate objects has been used in theatre. It explains how inanimate objects have been used for symbolism, storytelling, and development throughout the history of theatre. It illustrates how throughout those years puppetry has changed and formed into what it is now.

How I Used It: I did not directly cite this article, however, it was a useful source for providing historical facts about how puppetry and object theatre has developed and evolved over time. This article was used in writing my definition argument.

  1. Epic Theatre of Brecht. Epic theatre of brecht. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Background: This article provides detailed biographical information about Berthold Brecht and the development of “epic theatre” and how it influenced his work. It describes some of the tactics he used in the theatre to encourage his audiences to view his work critically rather than emotionally.

How I Used It: I used information from this article in my rebuttal to provide background information about Berthold Brecht. It was a helpful article for giving examples of Brecht’s ideas and I think it really strengthened my rebuttal argument. 

  1. Origins of the puppet. World Encyclopedia of Puppetry Arts. (2016, September 6). Retrieved December 2, 2021, from 

Background: This article is a quick, but informative article about the origins of puppets. The article includes information about where puppets originated, how they were used, what form of puppet they were, and how those forms differ or compare to other puppet styles. 

How I Used It: I used information from this article in my definition argument. Although I did not directly cite this article, I included information from it to give historical details about the many places that puppetry originated and the different styles that were explored during these times. This article gave wonderful support in explaining how the current state of puppetry was influenced. 

  1. Woodruff, P. (1988). ENGAGING EMOTION IN THEATER: A BRECHTIAN MODEL IN THEATER HISTORY. The Monist, 71(2), 235–257. 

Background: This article provides extensive information about Berthold Brecht and his theories regarding “epic theatre”. It also includes a strong argumentative statement against Brecht, like a rebuttal of its own. The article explores the many different forms of emotion in the theatre, how they are engaged, and why they are important. It is an engaging and thorough article and helps the reader understand Brechts’s view and a view opposite of his. 

How I Used It: I used this article in my rebuttal to not only provide information about Brecht but to also provide support for my statements, as the author of the paper made many strong points and reinforced my opinions.

  1. Roe, R. (2017, September 20). Mahna Mahna, yes… but why? Retrieved December 08, 2021, from 

Background: This article provides a wonderful example of audiences finding empathy within puppets. In the famous “Mahna Mahna” video, two characters perform, both of which are very different from each other. Audiences typically relate to one puppet or the other and this reveals information about themselves as human beings. It is a fascinating and entertaining article and does a wonderful job of tying a real-world example into this bizarre theory.

How I Used It: This article was used in my causal argument in order to strengthen my argument that puppets cause an empathetic reaction within humans. I put it in at the end of the argument to act as a nice bow, as it is relatable, lighthearted, and strong. I also used the article because it relates to my title and can show the readers why I chose the name of my paper.

  1. Yakubovskaya, I., Yakubovskaya, I., 12, H., 21, W., & 21, I. (2014, October 10). Emotion, brain, & behavior laboratory. Retrieved December 08, 2021, from 

Background: This article explores the neurological nature of theatrical performance, including what emotions people experience in the theatre, why they experience these emotions, and why emotional reactions, including empathy, are vital aspects of a performance setting. Aristotle’s many studies are included in this article, along with techniques for conveying emotion as an actor and how that compares and differs from genuine emotion.

How I Used It: I used this article in my rebuttal statement to strengthen my statements about the importance of emotion in a theatrical performance. It provided incredible support for explaining why empathy is natural in performance art and it provided me with the words I could not think of to say what I wanted to express. It helped me rebut the opposing viewpoint and really strengthened my argument.

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