Scientists determine that the outcome of animal experimentation would not be beneficial because the physiology between animals and humans have major differences.
Summary 1: The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation
Procedures in a laboratory may influence the animal’s behavior for which the scientist cannot control. The animal’s behavior may even affect the outcome of the experiment. Having an animal in an enclosed space can cause distress and even abnormal behaviors in the animals. An example of this phenomenon occurred with a test of rats. The rats became stressed and developed chronic inflammatory conditions, and even intestinal leakage. All of the variables can affect the date of the experiment.
Akhtar, A. (2015, October). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics: CQ: the international journal of healthcare ethics committees. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/.
Summary 2: Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing?
The most common argument on animal experimentation is whether it is humane or not. Animals used in experiments are forced to eat/drink, and even deprivation. Sometimes animals are deliberately sickened with certain chemicals and infected with diseases. In some cases, at the and of the experiment, the animals are killed. In January of 2020, the US Department of Agriculture reported that facilities used over 300,000 animals in activities that caused immense pain, only in that one year.
On the other hand, animal testing contributes to life-saving treatments to humans. The first ever vaccine was created with the help of reaching cows, which helped end smallpox. Smallpox first emerged from cattle called cowpox. The vaccine shows how closely animals and humans are related. Animal testing continues to create breakthroughs with the healthcare system today.
Pros & Cons – ProCon.org. Animal Testing. (2020, June 10). Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://animal-testing.procon.org/.
Summary 3: Ethics of Animal Experimentation
Animal research is extremely important to the advancement of medicine and even science. The number of lives saved by the inventions derived from experimentation is numerous. Even though this data seems positive, many people continue to be controversial about the opinion. Animal research first began back in the fifth century, starting with the Greeks, such as Aristotle. In this time period, the Greeks performed exploratory surgeries on live animals. This later was developed into punishments for criminals. The real debate upon animal experimentation started during the Renaissance period. Different groups pushed their voice aloud, saying how inhumane animal experimentation is and how it should be stopped. Some people even say that animals should not be even kept as pets.
Cornett, E. M., Jones, M. R., & Kaye, A. D. (2019, May 11). Ethics of animal experimentation – springer. Ethics of Animal Experimentation. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99124-5_25.
Summary 4: Why Animal Research?
The use of animal experimentation has been essential for the discovery of treatments for many years. People have always asked questions whether animal testing is actually ethical. But animal testing has been very critical for biomedical research. Scientists have confirmed that animals are susceptible to many of the same health conditions as humans. (Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, etc.) Animals have a much shorter life cycle compared to humans, so it is very easy to study their whole life span. Scientists can also see how a disease can progress and how it acts with an entire biological system.
Animal Research at Stanford. (n.d.). Why animal research? Animal Research at Stanford. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://med.stanford.edu/animalresearch/why-animal-research.html.
Summary 5: Should Animals be Used in Research?
Removing animals in a lab will impede our understanding on health and disease, but sometimes these experiments shorten the quality of life for the animals. Scientists have created a principle to help minimize the pain animals could experience. The principle is called the ‘three Rs.’ The three Rs are reduce, replace, and refine. First off, scientists need to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. By sharing information to other scientists, it helps stop creating the same experiments over and over again. Replacing with computer modeling, or cell culture or even human volunteers instead of using animals. Finally, refine the way animals are cared for. Scientists need to try to minimize the pain that animals may feel. Try using less invasive procedures and improve the living conditions where the animals are staying.
The Public Engagement team at the Wellcome Genome Campus. (2017, March 3). Should animals be used in research? Debates. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.yourgenome.org/debates/should-animals-be-used-in-research.
Topics for Smaller Papers (Work in progress)
- Animal testing (just within) cosmetics
- Positive outcomes of animal experimentation