- Working Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: While men are less likely to be diagnosed with cancer every year, women are more likely to develop new cancers from obesity and inactivity.
5 Sources with Bibliographic information and hyperlinks to the material
Purposeful Summaries of your Sources
This study covers that weight, weight gain, and obesity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Evidence on obesity is showing the benefits of physical activity for breast and colon cancers. The growing epidemic of obesity provides a challenge to clinical practice and the implementation of guidelines for the management of weight. Data from the past 25 years point to obesity as a cause of approximately 14% of cancer deaths in men and up to 20% of cancer deaths in women. Overweight and obesity have increased from 15% in 1980 to 35% in 2005. The researchers, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), studied and tested the rates of obesity in the majority of the common cancers. Researchers concluded that that obesity was a cause of 11% of colon cancer cases, 9% of postmenopausal breast cancer cases, 39% of endometrial cancer cases, 25% of kidney cancer cases, and 37% of esophageal cancer cases. Since the 2002 IARC report, new evidence has supported a cause-and-effect relation between overweight and obesity and the start of these cancers, increasing the responsibility of cancer resulting from obesity. The estimation is that overweight and obesity cause approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Coming behind tobacco, overweight/obesity is the second highest cause of cancer cases. Obesity is one of the top leading causes of cancer.
How cancer affects men and women differently. (n.d.). http://Www.eehealth.org. https://www.eehealth.org/blog/2017/11/how-cancer-affects-men-and-women-differently/
After observing this article, men are more likely to get cancer while women are more likely to survive it. Men are 6% more likely to die from any type of cancer than women. Men are 12% more likely to die from a certain type of cancer than a woman with the same type of cancer. “A recent study suggests that the differences between the sexes may in part be due to carcinogenic exposures and lifestyle factors like cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and eating fattier foods — all of which are more prevalent among men.” Men are less likely to get cancer scans than women. They attend to avoid medical attention. Developing cancers can be traced back to the hormones contributing to differences in men’s and women’s “immune systems, metabolism, and general susceptibility to cancer, as well as genetic differences.” Sex is an important factor in the diagnosis and prognosis of many diseases. The risk of cancer is much higher in males, relative to females, for a majority of cancers at most ages, exposure factors implicated in these sex disparities include hormones, body mass index (kg/m2), viral infections, carcinogenic susceptibility, and health care access and utilization. Gender plays a role in different cancers.
- Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence – PubMed (nih.gov)
Pan, S. Y., & DesMeules, M. (2009). Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 472, 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_8
Physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are related to total energy intake. It is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient pieces of evidence to support the role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast. The association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer. It is known that obesity does not have a role in lung cancer. People who are obese can have lung cancer, but it is not a factor of lung cancer. Obesity in other cancer risks is unclear. The body mass index can determine whether you are obsese or not. Body mass index is a value derived from the mass and height of a person. The body mass index is used as a screening tool for overweight and obesity. Being overweight and obese can cause changes in the body that help lead to cancer. Some of these changes are long-lasting inflammation and higher than normal levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and sex hormones. The risk of cancer increases with the more excess weight a person gains and the longer a person is overweight.
- Cardiovascular and other competing causes of death among patients with cancer from 2006 to 2015: An Australian population‐based study – Ye – 2019 – Cancer – Wiley Online Library
Ye, Y., Otahal, P., Marwick, T. H., Wills, K. E., Neil, A. L., & Venn, A. J. (2018). Cardiovascular and other competing causes of death among patients with cancer from 2006 to 2015: An Australian population‐based study. Cancer, 125(3), 442–452. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31806
Studies have shown that with improved cancer survivorship, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other noncancer events compete with cancer as the underlying cause of death, but the risks of mortality in competing-risk settings have not been well characterized. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of conditions that involve the heart and blood vessels. Common complications include heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke. The number of individuals living with a history of cancer has continued to increase. CVD deaths are varied by first cancer site, indicating increased risks after the first diagnosis of lung cancer, hematologic malignancy, and urinary tract cancer. For individuals with all cancers combined, CVD was the leading cause of competing mortality in both male and female patients with cancer. CVD can be caused by obesity. Men are more likely to be more active than women. Heart disease and weight loss are closely linked because your risk for heart disease is associated with your weight. If you are overweight or obese, you may be at higher risk for the condition. Medical experts consider obesity and being overweight to be major risk factors for both coronary heart disease and heart attack.
- Overweight and obesity predict better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant metastases – Tsang – 2016 – Cancer Medicine – Wiley Online Library
Tsang, N. M., Pai, P. C., Chuang, C. C., Chuang, W. C., Tseng, C. K., Chang, K. P., Yen, T. C., Lin, J. D., & Chang, J. T. C. (2016). Overweight and obesity predict better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant metastases. Cancer Medicine, 5(4), 665–675. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.634
Cancer remains a leading cause of death and a major public health concern worldwide. “According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report, approximately 12.7 million cancer cases are newly diagnosed and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur each year globally.” The current retrospective study is designed to investigate the potential association between BMI and overall survival in patients with distant metastases and favorable performance status. Multiple recent studies studied patients with chronic diseases and have reported an inverse association between body mass index. The World Health Organization’s BMI classification system, which includes the following categories: underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (BMI: 18.5–24.99 kg/m2), overweight (BMI: 25–29.99 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Another point of consideration of the merits when dealing with the prognostic significance of BMI in cancer patients is the time of its determination. Due to lean body mass, reductions in adipose tissue may become more pronounced in advanced disease stages. “Tumors of high malignant potential are supposed to require higher levels of energy for growth. The findings indicate that overweight and obesity are independent predictors of better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant measures and good performance status.”
- Topics for Smaller Papers
Definition Argument: The term “obesity” is misrepresented by someone who is overweight. What isn’t recognized is the health problems that follow obesity. Obesity can cause heart problems and can lead to cancer. Throughout society, obesity is judgemental but it can be solved with the use of activity rather than judgments.
Cause/Effect Argument: Not being able to stay active and being under the body mass index can cause cancer. The differences between the sexes may in part be due to carcinogenic exposures and lifestyle factors like cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating fattier foods — all of which are more prevalent among men. Heart disease and weight loss are closely linked because your risk for heart disease is associated with your weight. If you are overweight or obese, you may be at higher risk for the condition.
Rebuttal argument: Obesity is the second most common cause of causing cancer, tobacco is the leading cause. Not everyone who is obese will get cancer. Being overweight and obese can cause changes in the body that help lead to cancer. Previous studies suggest that noncancer events are playing an important role as the cause of death among individuals with specific cancers. In our previous study, we identified an increased risk of death from non-cancer events among patients with cancer who had longer survival, but data on specific noncancer events were limited.
- Current State of the Research
As I began doing my research, I found out that there are not many articles on my exact topic. I had to search each part of my hypothesis separately and bring them all together to make sense and get academic information on it. I also realized that most of the articles on google scholar for my hypothesis are charts rather than written information. I had to read graphs to grasp how important the information was such as the BMI chart. Most articles did not give me direct information, I had to combine all the articles for my information.