“Granted, diagnosing PTSD is a tricky thing. The result of a malfunctioning nervous system that fails to normalize after trauma and instead perpetrates memories and misfires life-or-death stress for no practical reason, it comes in a couple of varieties, various complexities, has causes ranging from one lightning-fast event to drawn-out terrors or patterns of abuse—in soldiers, the incidence of PTSD goes up with the number of tours and amount of combat experienced”.
This is a factual claim since these are characteristics shared by persons who have been diagnosed with PTSD after serving in the military. It is also true that there are many types and patterns of PTSD.
“Kateri’s eight-year-old son now also counts the exits in new spaces he enters, points them out to his loved ones, keeps a mental map of them at the ready, until war or fire fails to break out, and everyone is safely back home.”
This is a causal claim since it demonstrates that Kateri’s son is beginning to acquire PTSD symptoms as a result of Kateri.
“I guess we’re just used to dealing with people with more severe injuries,’ a VA nurse once told Brannan upon seeing Caleb“.
This is a moral claim since it is highly unethical to persuade someone that their difficulties are small in comparison to those of others.
“But studies take a long time, and any resulting new directives take even longer to be implemented“
This is a comparative claim since it compares research from the past to the present and how any ensuing directions take much longer to execute presently.
“Brannan gave the packet to Katie’s kindergarten teacher, but thinks the teacher just saw it as an excuse for bad behavior. Last fall, she switched Katie to a different school, where she hopes more understanding will lead to less anxiety”.
This is an evaluative claim since Katie’s teacher decided to transfer her to a new school owing to her terrible conduct.