This is a Factual Claim, it is true that this is one of the many things that can happen to a person that has or develops PTSD. It’s true there are multiple forms and patterns to PTSD, it is an ever changing disorder that is specific to each individual.
“Granted, diagnosing PTSD is a tricky thing. The result of a malfunctioning nervous system that fails to normalize after trauma and instead perpetrates memories and misfires life-or death stress for no practical reason, it comes in a couple of varieties, various complexities, has causes ranging from one lightning-fast event to drawn-out terrors or patterns of abuse —in soldiers… “
This could be a Causal Claim, it is true that more time in combat or touring could worsen the disorder but it is a case by case disorder. It may not affect everyone the same and more touring may not worsen one soldier’s PTSD.
“… the incidence of PTSD goes up with the number of tours and amount of combat experienced.”
This is an Evaluative claim, it is not fully passed on facts but emotions, it is very common for people that are never told what they have that is ruining their life to feel annoyed or “invalidating.” You are in a constant state of confusion not only because the doctors don’t know what you have , but they may not have an idea of what is even causing it. It is even worse when all tests and scans show nothing is wrong.
“Doctors have to go on hunches and symptomology rather than definitive evidence. And the fact that the science hasn’t fully caught up with the suffering, that Caleb can’t point to something provably, biologically ruining his life, just makes him feel worse. It’s invalidating.”
This is an Analogy Claim, I don’t really wanna explain this one, it explains itself.
“Caleb knows that a person whose problem is essentially that he can’t adapt to peacetime Alabama sounds, to many, like a pussy.”
This is a Moral Claim, it is a statement by someone based on nothing but their own opinion that could be very controversial. Invalidating someone’s problems because they believe no one that is sent to those areas has a valid reason to come back with problems.
“‘Somebody at the VA told me, ‘Kids in Congo and Uganda don’t have PTSD,’ Caleb tells me angrily one day.”
This is a Factual Claim, it is a description of the cause of Caleb’s TBI, being exposed to explosions just once is enough to really hurt yourself, but Caleb was met with over twenty explosions in only two hours of combate.
“It’s called traumatic brain injury, or TBI, from multiple concussions. In two tours, he was in at least 20 explosions—IEDs, vehicle-borne IEDs, RPGs. In one of them, when a mortar or grenade hit just behind him, he was thrown headfirst through a metal gate and into a courtyard.”
This is a Factual Claim, there is evidence in the VA system to support that he has one of the worst scores out of the fifty thousand veterans that were in the system when Caleb was entered into the system.
“When Caleb was finally screened for the severity of his TBI, Brannan says he got the second-worst score in the whole 18-county Gulf Coast VA system, which serves more than 50,000 veterans.”
This is a Moral and Analogy Claim, telling someone that their problems are insignificant compared to others is very immoral. Although there is an unwritten tier of injuries and diseases that we as a society created, it should never be said to someone’s face that their problems are as big as others. Number one rule of suicide prevention is invalidating someones problems or comparing them to others.
“‘I guess we’re just used to dealing with people with more severe injuries,’ a VA nurse once told Brannan upon seeing Caleb.”
This could be a Definition and Analogy Claim, it explains that the system can sometimes have a hard time seeing secondary traumatic stress due to the fact that PTSD and secondary traumatic stress are similar.Showing what makes it different from PTSD, it gives an example as to why they are different.
“Unlike PTSD, secondary traumatic stress doesn’t have its own entry in the DSM, though the manual does take note of it, as do many peer-reviewed studies and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Symptoms start at depression and alienation, including the ‘compassion fatigue’ suffered by social workers and trauma counselors. But some spouses and loved ones suffer symptoms that are, as one medical journal puts it, ‘almost identical to PTSD except that indirect exposure to the traumatic event through close contact with the primary victim of trauma’ is the catalyst. ”